Earthquake shaking table

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There are several different experimental techniques that can be used to test the response of structures to verify their seismic performance, one of which is the use of an earthquake shaking table (a shaking table, or simply shake table). This is a device for shaking structural models or building components with a wide range of simulated ground motions, including reproductions of recorded earthquakes time-histories.

While modern tables typically consist of a rectangular platform that is driven in up to six degrees of freedom (DOF) by servo-hydraulic or other types of actuators, the earliest shake table, invented at the University of Tokyo in 1893 to categorize types of building construction, ran on a simple wheel mechanism.[1] Test specimens are fixed to the platform and shaken, often to the point of failure. Using video records and data from transducers, it is possible to interpret the dynamic behaviour of the specimen. Earthquake shaking tables are used extensively in seismic research, as they provide the means to excite structures in such a way that they are subjected to conditions representative of true earthquake ground motions.

They are also used in other fields of engineering to test and qualify vehicles and components of vehicles that must respect heavy vibration requirements and standards (i.e. aerospace,[2][3] military standards[4] etc.).

A world list of shaking tables[edit]

Below is an attempt to create a definitive list of shaking tables around the world that are used for seismic testing. The list is almost certainly not complete and not all the data has been verified by the shaking table owners. If you operate a shaking table please help by correcting and updating and adding to this list.

This list was originally based on information from the following documents: Experimental Facilities for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Worldwide, Directory of International Earthquake Engineering Research Facilities and papers by Chowdhury,[5] Duarte,[6] Kamimura and Nakashima [7] and EERI.[8]

Shaking Tables around the world
Region Country State Location Size (m) Payload (metric tonnes) Degrees of Freedom X Horiz Disp (mm) Y Horiz Disp (mm) Z Vert Disp (mm) X Horiz Vel (mm/s) Y Horiz vel (mm/s) Z Vert vel (mm/s) X Horiz accel (m/s2) Y Horiz accel (m/s2) Z Vert accel (m/s2) Max Freq (Hz) Details checked
Africa Algeria - CGS Laboratory, Alger [9] 6.1 x 6.1 60 6 ±150 ±250 ±100 ±1100 ±1100 ±1000 ±10 ±10 ±8 100 30/6/2010
Africa South Africa - University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg[10] 4 x 4 10 1 ±750 n/a n/a ±1000 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 40 17/7/2009
Asia China - China Academy of Building Research, Beijing [11][12] 6.1 x 6.1 60 6 ±150 ±250 ±100 ±1000 ±1200 ±800 ±15 ±10 ±8 50 ?
Asia China - Guangzhou University [13] 3 x 3 20 6 ±100 ±100 ±50 ±1000 ±1000 ±1000 ±26 ±26 ±50 50 10/7/2008
Asia China - Nanjing University of Technology [12] 3 x 5 15 3 ±120 ±120 ±120 ±500 ±500 ±500 ±10 ±10 ±10 50 ?
Asia China - Tongji University, Shanghai [12] 4 x 4 25 6 ±100 ±50 ±50 ±1000 ±600 ±600 ±40 ±20 ±40 50 ?
Asia China - Xi'a University of Architecture & Technology 2 x 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Singapore - Nanyang Technological University 3 x 3 10 1 ±120 n/a n/a ±650 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 23/7/2008
Asia Hong Kong - City University of Hong Kong ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Hong Kong - Hong Kong Polytechnic University [14] 3 x 3 10 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10 ? ? ? ?
Asia India Delhi Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi [15] 5 x 5 20 1 ±500 n/a n/a ? ? ? ±20 n/a n/a 100 ?
Asia India Assam IIT Guwahati [16] 2.5 x 2.5 5 1 ±500 n/a n/a ? ? ? ±20 n/a n/a 100 ?
Asia India Karnataka CPRI Bangalore,[17] Karnataka 3 x 3 10 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India Karnataka IISc, Bangalore [18] 1 x 1 0.5 6 ±220 ±220 ±100 ±570 ±570 ±570 ±30 ±30 ±20 50 23/7/2008
Asia India Tamil Nadu SERC, Chennai (1 of 3),[17] Tamil Nadu 4 x 4 30 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India Tamil Nadu SERC, Chennai (2 of 3),[17] Tamil Nadu 2 x 2 5 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India Tamil Nadu SERC, Chennai (3 of 3),[19] Tamil Nadu 3 x 3 10 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India Tamil Nadu Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research(IGCAR), Chennai,Tamil Nadu 3 x 3 10 6 ±100 ±100 ±100 300 300 ? ±14.715 ±14.715 9.81 100 ?
Asia India Uttarakhand IIT Roorkee,[17][20] Uttarakhand 3.5 x 3.5 20 2 ? n/a ? ? n/a ? ? n/a ? ? ?
Asia India Uttar Pradesh IIT Kanpur,[21] Uttar Pradesh 1.2 x 1.8 4 1 ±75 n/a n/a ±1500 n/a n/a ±50 n/a n/a 50 25/6/2009
Asia India West Bengal Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur,[22] West Bengal 1.5 x 1.5 ? 1 ? n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? 19/11/2009
Asia Iran - International Institute of Earthquake Engineering ans Seismology(IIEES) 1.4 x 1.2 2 1 ±35 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±40 n/a n/a ? ?
Asia Iran - Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST) 2 x 0.5 5 1 ±60 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±6.5 n/a n/a ? ?
Asia Iran - Sharif University of Technology (SUT)) 4 x 4 30 3 ±125 ±200 ? ±500 ±800 ? ±50 ±40 ? 50 7/19/2011
Asia Japan - Aichi Institute of Technology 11 x 6 136 1 ±150 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Building Research Institute 3 x 4 20 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Japan - Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry [23] 5 x 5 60 1 ±500 n/a n/a ±1500 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 30 12/3/2008
Asia Japan - NIED ‘E-Defence’ Laboratory, Miki City [24] 20 x 15 1200 6 ±1000 ±1000 ±500 ±2000 ±2000 ±700 ±9 ±9 ±15 50 3/3/2008
Asia Japan - Fujita Corporation 4 x 4 25 1 ±500 n/a n/a ±1500 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 50 ?
Asia Japan - Hazama Corp Ltd. 6 x 4 80 3 ±300 ±150 ±100 ±1150 ? ? ±20 ±3 ±2 50 ?
Asia Japan - Hitachi Engineering Corp 4 x 4 20 1 ±150 ? ? ±750 ? ? ±20 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan - Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Corp. 4.5 x 4.5 35 6 ±100 ±100 ±67 ±750 ±750 ±500 ±15 ±15 ±10 50 ?
Asia Japan - JDC Corp. ? 20 6 ±300 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Kawasaki Heavy Industries Corp. ? 30 3 ±75 ? ? ±400 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Kajima Corp. Ltd. (1 of 2) [25] 5 x 5 50 6 ±200 ±200 ±100 ±1000 ±1000 ±500 ±20 ±20 ±20 60 3/3/2008
Asia Japan - Kajima Corp. Ltd. (2 of 2) 4 x 4 20 2 ±150 n/a ±75 ±1140 n/a ±4450 ±20 n/a ±10 50 ?
Asia Japan - Kumagai-Gumi Corp Ltd 5 x 5 64 6 ±80 ±260 ±50 ±600 ±1500 ±500 ±30 ±10 ±10 70 ?
Asia Japan - Kyoto University 5 x 3 14 6 ±300 ? ? ±1500 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Kyoto University Disaster Prevention Research Centre [26] 3.5 diameter ? 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Japan - Ministry of Construction 6 x 8 100 2 ±75 n/a ? ±600 n/a ? ±7 n/a ? 30 ?
Asia Japan - Mitsubishi Electric Corp. ? 40 2 ±100 ? ? ±700 ? ? ±25 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corp. ? 100 3 ±50 ? ? ±1500 ? ? ±20 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - National Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering 6 x 4 45 3 ±150 ? ? ±750 ? ? ±10 ? ? 40 ?
Asia Japan - NIED (Nat. Inst. for Disaster Prevention) (1 of 2) 6 x 6 1100 3 ±1000 ? ? ±2000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 15 ?
Asia Japan - NIED (Nat. Inst. for Disaster Prevention) (2 of 2) 12 x 12 500 1 ±220 ? ? ±900 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Nishimatsu Construction Corp 5.5 x 5.5 65 6 ±500 ? ? ±1500 ? ? ±20 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation 15 x 15 908 2 ±200 n/a ±100 ±750 n/a ±375 ±18 n/a ±9 30 ?
Asia Japan - NYK Corporation 2.6 x 2.6 20 6 ±200 ? ? ±600 ? ? ±20 ? ? 80 ?
Asia Japan - Obayashi-Gumi Corporation 5 x 5 46 3 ±600 ? ? ±2000 ? ? ±30 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Okumura Corp. ? 60 6 ±125 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±30 ? ? 70 ?
Asia Japan - Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd. (1 of 2) ? 60 6 ±300 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±5 ? ? 70 ?
Asia Japan - Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd. (2 of 2) ? 60 6 ±200 ? ? ±750 ? ? ±10 ? ? 70 ?
Asia Japan - Port and Airport Research Institute 3.4 x 3.4 55 2 ±200 n/a ±100 ±750 ±500 n/a ±8 ±15 n/a 50 ?
Asia Japan - Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) [27] 8 x 8 300 6 ±600 ±600 ±300 ±2000 ±2000 ±1000 ±20 ±20 ±10 50 10/5/2008
Asia Japan - Sanryo Heavy Industries Corporation 6 x 6 90.7 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Japan - Shimizu Corporation 4 x 4 20 3 ±200 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Taisei Corp Ltd 4 x 4 20 2 ±200 ? ? ±450 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan - Tobishima Corp Ltd 4 x 4 20 2 ±75 ? ? ? ? ? ±15 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan - Tobishima Corp Ltd ? 20 6 ±200 ? ? ±800 ? ? ±10 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan - Tokyu Const. Corp. 4 x 4 30 6 ±500 ±200 ±100 ±1500 ±1000 ? ±10 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan - Toshiba Electric Co. 5 x 5 20 2 ±750 n/a ±380 ±400 n/a ±250 ±10 n/a ±7 30 ?
Asia South Korea - Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development (1 of 2) [28] 2 x 2 5 2 ±75 ±75 n/a ±500 ±500 n/a ±10 ±10 n/a ? 5/2/2009
Asia South Korea - Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development (2 of 2) 5 x 3 30 1 ±100 n/a n/a ±500 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a ? 5/2/2009
Asia South Korea - Korea Institute of Machinery and Metals, Changwon 4 x 4 30 6 ±200 ±200 ±134 ±750 ±750 ±500 ±15 ±15 ±10 50 ?
Asia Korea - Pusan National University (1 of 3) [29] 5 x 5 300 2 ±300 ±200 n/a ±1000 ±1000 n/a ±20 ±20 n/a 60 24/7/2008
Asia Korea - Pusan National University (2 of 3) [29] 5 x 5 600 2 ±300 ±200 n/a ±1000 ±1000 n/a ±30 ±30 n/a 60 24/7/2008
Asia Korea - Pusan National University (3 of 3) [29] 4 x 4 300 6 ±300 ±200 ±150 ±1500 ±1500 ±1000 ±20 ±20 ±40 60 24/7/2008
Asia Malaysia - Sabah University 1.5 x 1.5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Taiwan - National Center for Research in Earthquake Engineering [30] 5 x 5 50 6 ±250 ±100 ±100 ±1000 ±600 ±500 ±10 ±30 ±10 50 12/3/2008
Oceania Australia Victoria University of Melbourne 2 x 2 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Oceania Australia New South Wales University of Technology, Sydney 3 x 3 10 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50 15/12/2009
North America Canada Ontario Royal Military College of Canada,[31] Kingston 2.7 x 2.7 5 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
North America Canada British Columbia University of British Columbia (EERF Lab), Vancouver 4 x 4 30 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
North America Canada Québec University of Sherbrooke ? x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Europe France - Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), AZALEE (1 of 3) [32] 6 x 6 100 6 ±125 ±125 ±100 ±700 ±700 ±700 ±10 ±10 ±25 50 27/01/2011
Europe France - Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), VESUVE (2 of 3) [32] 4 x 3 20 1 ±125 n/a n/a ±1000 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 50 27/01/2011
Europe France - Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), TOURNESOL (3 of 3) [32] 2 x 2 10 3 ±125 n/a ±100 ±2000 n/a ±1300 ±10 n/a 10 50 27/01/2011
Europe France - FCBA Institut technologique,[33] Bordeaux 6 x 6 10 1 ±125 n/a n/a ±800 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 02/2011
Europe Greece - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 1.2 x 1.2 15 2 ±50 n/a ±50 ? n/a ? ? n/a ? 30 ?
Europe Greece - National Technical University of Athens [34] 4 x 4 10 6 ±100 ±100 ±100 ±1000 ±1000 ±1000 ±20 ±20 ±40 100 12/3/2008
Europe Italy - Ansaldo Nucleare, Genoa [35] 3.5 x 3.5 6 3 ±70 ? ? ±860 ? ? ? ? ? 60 ?
Europe Italy - Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples [36] - Shake Table 4 x 4 20 2 ±250 ±250 n/a ±1000 ±1000 n/a 10 10 n/a 50 -
Europe Italy - ENEA (Casaccia R. C.) - System 1 [37] Shake Table (1 of 2) 4 x 4 30 6 ±125 ±125 ±125 ±500 ±500 ±500 ±30 ±30 ±30 50 13/6/2015
Europe Italy - ENEA (Casaccia R. C.) - System 2 [37] Shake Table (2 of 2) 2 x 2 5 6 ±150 ±150 ±150 ±1000 ±1000 ±1000 ±50 ±50 ±50 100 13/6/2015
Europe Italy - CESI S.p.A., Static & Dynamic Testing Laboratories, Seriate (BG) 4 x 4 30 6 ±100 ±100 ±100 ±440 ±440 ±440 ±50 ±50 ? 120 13/6/2015
Europe Italy - European Centre for Training & Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) [38] - Shake Table 5.6 x 7 140 1 ±500 - - ±2200 - - 59 - - 50 -
Europe Italy - European Centre for Training & Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) [38] - Bearing Testing System 1.6 x 4.4 5000 (vertical load) 5 ±500 ±265 140 ±2200 ±600 ±250 18 - - 20 -
Europe Italy - European Centre for Training & Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) [38] - Damper Testing System 1.5 x 2 50 1 ±250 - - ±1180 - - 10 - - 20 -
Europe Macedonia - Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), University of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje (1 of 2) [39] 5 x 5 40 5 n/a ±125 ±60 n/a ±1000 ±500 n/a ±30 ±15 80 20/9/2011
Europe Macedonia - Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), University of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje (2 of 2) [39] 1.4 x 2.5 8 1 ±100 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 80 7/7/2008
Europe The Netherlands - European Space Agency (ESA) ESTEC Test Centre,[40] Noordwijk 5.5 x 5.5 22.5 6 ±70 ±70 ±70 ±800 ±800 ±800 ±50 ±50 ±50 2-100 23/7/2008
Europe Portugal - Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC), Lisbon 5.6 x 5.6 40 3 ±175 ±175 ±175 ±200 ±200 ±200 ±18 ±11 ±6 20 ?
Europe Russia - Hydroproject Research Institute 5 x 5 50 3 ±70 ±70 ±40 ±600 ? ? ±20 ±20 ? 40 ?
Europe Spain - CEDEX, Madrid [41][42] 3 x 3 10 6 ±100 ±100 ±50 ? ? ? ±10 ±10 ±20 60 13/6/2015
Europe Turkey - Bogazici University, Istanbul (1 of 2) [43] 3 x 3 10 1 ±120 n/a n/a ±650 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 3/3/2008
Europe Turkey - Bogazici University, Istanbul (2 of 2) [43] 0.7 x 0.7 0.1 3 ±120 ±120 ±120 ±1200 ±1200 ±1200 ±100 ±100 ±100 40 3/3/2008
Europe Turkey - Middle East Technical University, Ankara [44] 2 x 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Europe UK - University of Bristol (EERC) [45] 3 x 3 17 6 ±150 ±150 ±150 ±1100 ±1100 ±1100 ±60 ±60 ±60 100 29/2/2008
Asia Pakistan - Earthquake Engineering Center, University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar [46] 6.0 x 6.0 60 6 ±300 ±300 ±300 ±1100 ±1100 ±1100 ±14.7 ±14.7 ±14.7 50
North America Mexico Mexico D. F. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City [47] 4 x 4 20 5 ±150 ±150 ±75 ±1100 ±1100 ±450 ±10 ±10 ±10 60 10/9/2008
North America USA Colorado ANCO Engineers, Inc Boulder, Colorado [48] 3 x 3 10 3 ±200 ±200 ±200 ±2000 ±2000 ±2000 ±30 ±30 ±30 40 16/10/2012
North America USA Alabama NASA 3 x 4.5 1 6 ±2440 ? ? ±100 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
North America USA Ohio NASA Mechanical Vibration Facility (MVF), Glenn's Space Power Facility,[49] Sandusky 6.7 diameter 34 6 ±15 ±15 ? ±338 ±338 ? ? ? ? 150 23/6/2015
North America USA Alabama Wyle Laboratories (1 of 3) [50] 6.1 x 5.5 27 2 ±152 ? ? ±890 ? ? ±60 ? ? 100 16/10/2012
North America USA Alabama Wyle Laboratories (2 of 3) [50] 2.7 x 2.7 4.5 3 ±250 ±250 ±250 ±1120 ±1120 ±1120 ±45 ±45 ±45 100 16/10/2012
North America USA Alabama Wyle Laboratories (3 of 3) [50] 2.4 x 2.4 4.5 2 ±305 n/a ±228 ±1168 n/a ±838 ±70 n/a ±80 70 16/10/2012
North America USA North Carolina Duke University [51] 1.2 x 1.2 5 1 ±75 n/a n/a ±500 n/a n/a ±50 n/a n/a 60 15/4/2008
North America USA California University of California at Berkeley [52] 6.1 x 6.1 85 6 ±127 ±127 ±51 ±762 ±762 ±254 ±30 ±30 ±20 40 30/4/2008
North America USA California California State University, Fresno [53] 2.4 x 2.0 ? 1 ±125 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? 19/11/2009
North America USA California University of California at San Diego [54] 12.2 x 7.6 2000 1 ±750 n/a n/a ±1800 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 20 7/7/2008
North America USA Connecticut University of Connecticut [55] 1.5 x 1.5 1 1 ±150 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 8/5/2008
North America USA Illinois University of Illinois at Urbana / Champaign 3.7 x 3.7 5 1 ±50 ? ? ±381 ? ? ±30 ? ? 50 ?
North America USA New York University at Buffalo (State University of New York) (2 identical tables of 3) [56] 3.6 x 3.6 50 6 ±150 ±150 ±75 ±1250 ±1250 ±500 ±12 ±12 ±12 100 12/3/2008
North America USA New York University at Buffalo (State University of New York) (3 of 3) [56] 3.7 x 3.7 50 5 ±150 n/a ±75 ±762 n/a ±500 ±12 n/a ±23 50 12/3/2008
North America USA New York Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute[57] 1.7 x 2.6 5 1 ±130 n/a n/a ±270 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 8/5/2008
North America USA Nevada University of Nevada at Reno (3 identical biaxial tables) [58] 4.3 x 4.5 45 2 ±300 ±300 n/a ±1270 ±1270 n/a ±20 ±20 n/a 50 8/2/2010
North America USA Nevada University of Nevada at Reno (6 axis table) [59] 2.75 x 2.75 50 6 ±75 ±300 ±100 ? ? ? ±20 ±40 ±10 50 13/3/2008
North America USA Nevada Dynamic Certification Laboratories [60] 2.0 diameter 4.5 6 ±140 ±120 ±150 ±1000 ±1000 ±1200 ±98 ±98 ±108 100 17/7/2012
North America USA Texas Rice University [61] 0.465m² 7 1 ±75 n/a n/a ±1400 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 8/5/2008
North America USA Illinois Civil Engineering Research Lab U.S. Army, Champaign 3.6 x 3.6 45 3 ±300 ? ? ±1300 ? ? ? ? ? 250 ?
North America USA Virginia The George Washington University - Virginia Campus [62] 3 x 3 ? 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Notes: This list is restricted to shaking tables bigger than 2m by 2m or with a capacity of more than 4 tonnes (i.e. tables suitable for seismic testing).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reitherman, Robert (2012). Earthquakes and Engineers: An International History. Reston, VA: ASCE Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 9780784410714. 
  2. ^ NASA’s Space Power Facility
  3. ^ [1] Retrieved 17/6/2015
  4. ^ United States Department of Defense, ed. (31 Oct 2008). "MIL-STD-810G, Department of Defense Test Method Standard for Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests" (PDF). 
  5. ^ Chowdhury AH (1983). Shaking table testing facilities around the world. Proceedings of the 4th Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference: Recent Advances in Engineering Mechanics and their Impact on Civil Engineering Practice., West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. Vol. 1, pp. 617-620.
  6. ^ Duarte RT (1994). Report of the EAEE Working Group 11: Development of shaking table testing techniques. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 4, pp. 3135-3144.
  7. ^ Kamimura K, Nakashima M (1983). Seismic test facilities for building structures in Japan. Proceedings of the 4th Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference: Recent Advances in Engineering Mechanics and their Impact on Civil Engineering Practice., West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. Vol. 1, pp. 638-641.
  8. ^ EERI (1995). Assessment of earthquake engineering research and testing capabilities in the United States. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Committee on Experimental Research, Oakland, CA. Publication No. WP-01, pp. 1-23.
  9. ^ Presentation on Current activities in Algeria Retrieved 30/6/2010
  10. ^ Press release about Hydraform Donating Earthquake Shake Table to Wits University Retrieved 22/10/2009
  11. ^ China Academy of Building Research - Major Laboratories Retrieved 10/7/2008
  12. ^ a b c Shaking table blog Retrieved 10/7/2008
  13. ^ Earthquake Engineering Research Test Center Retrieved 10/7/2008
  14. ^ Centre for urban hazards mitigation Retrieved 24/7/2008
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ IIT Guwahati, Department of Civil Engineering,Assam
  17. ^ a b c d Earthquake Resistant design practice and research in India, The Structural Engineer, 18 March 2008
  18. ^ Development of a digitally-controlled three-axis earthquake shake table,Karnataka Retrieved on 10/7/2008
  19. ^ SERC Chennai Advanced Seismic Testing and Research Laboratory Retrieved on 22/10/09
  20. ^ IIT Roorkee, Department of Earthquake Engineering
  21. ^ IIT Kanpur, Department of Civil Engineering
  22. ^ School of Disaster Mitigation Engineering (SDME)
  23. ^ CRIEPI Hybrid Seismic Testing System Shaking table Retrieved 12/3/2008
  24. ^ The NIED ‘E-Defence’ Laboratory in Miki City Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  25. ^ Kajima’s English Website Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  26. ^ MTS website Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  27. ^ Public Works Research Institute large 3D shaking table Retrieved on 10/5/2008
  28. ^ See p 14 of document - Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development Retrieved on 10/1/2009
  29. ^ a b c KOCED Multi platform seismic simulation facility Retrieved on 1/12/2010
  30. ^ NCREE's English Website Retrieved on 29/2/2008
  31. ^ [3] Retrieved on 13/6/2015
  32. ^ a b c Seismic Mechanic Studies Laboratory Retrieved 27/11/2011
  33. ^ [4] Retrieved on 13/6/2015
  34. ^ NTUA Laboratory for Earthquake Engineering Retrieved on 12/3/2008
  35. ^ [5] Retrieved on 13/6/2015
  36. ^ [6] Retrieved 29/11/2013
  37. ^ a b ENEA DySCo virtual lab facilities Retrieved 05/05/2015
  38. ^ a b c EUCENTRE TREES Lab Retrieved 06/09/2008
  39. ^ a b Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, IZIIS Retrieved on 20/09/2011
  40. ^ HYDRA multi-axis vibration test facility Retrieved 23/7/2008
  41. ^ CEDEX Structures laboratory Retrieved on 23/11/2009
  42. ^ [7] Retrieved on 13/6/2015
  43. ^ a b Bogazici University Shaking Table Laboratory Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  44. ^ [8] Retrieved 13/6/2015
  45. ^ Bristol University Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Retrieved on 29/2/2008
  46. ^ NWFP UET Earthquake Research and Education Centre
  47. ^ Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mesa Vibradora Laboratorios
  48. ^ ANCO Engineers shaking tables Retrieved on 15/10/2012
  49. ^ NASA Mechanical Vibration Facility (MVF)
  50. ^ a b c Wyle Laboratories shaking tables Retrieved on 16/10/2012
  51. ^ Duke University Structural Dynamics and the Seismic Response Control Laboratory Retrieved on 15/4/2008
  52. ^ University of California, Berkeley, Earthquake Simulator Laboratory Retrieved on 30/4/2008
  53. ^ Department of Civil Engineering Retrieved 19/11/2009
  54. ^ UCSD Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table Retrieved 12/3/2008
  55. ^ University of Connecticut Advanced Hazards Mitigation Lab Retrieved 8/5/2008
  56. ^ a b University at Buffalo’s Structural Engineering and Earthquake Simulation Laboratory (SEESL) Retrieved on 13/3/2008
  57. ^ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Structural Engineering Laboratories Retrieved 8/5/2008
  58. ^ NEES Equipment Site at the University of Nevada, Reno Retrieved 12/3/2008
  59. ^ NEES Equipment Site at the University of Nevada, Reno Retrieved 8/2/2010
  60. ^ Dynamic Certification Laboratories Retrieved 17/7/2012
  61. ^ Rice University, Dynamic Systems Laboratory Retrieved 8/5/2008
  62. ^ [9] Retrieved 8/13/2013