Eastern Garter Snake
|Eastern Garter Snake|
|Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis|
|Subspecies:||T. s. sirtalis|
|Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis
The Eastern Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis) is a medium-sized snake that is indigenous to North America.
Taxonomy and evolution
The scientific name Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis is a combination of Ancient Greek and New Latin that means "bush snakes that looks like a garter strap". The genus name "Thamnophis" is derived from the Greek "thamnos" (bush) and "ophio" (snake) and the New Latin "siratalis" (like a garter). The species name siratalis is a reference to the snake's pattern resembling a striped garter strap.
Eastern Garter snakes average between 18-26 inches long. The largest recorded length was 48.7 inches long. Females are typically larger than males. They are either a greenish, brown or black color and have a distinct yellow or white stripe.
Eastern Garter snakes are ovoviviparous, giving birth to live young. Many males may try to mate with one female, resulting in a 'breeding ball'. The young are 5-9 inches long at birth.
Distribution and habitat
The Eastern Garter Snake has a wide range across eastern North America, going as far north as southern Ontario and Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico in the south, along the eastern shores of America to the Mississippi River. In New England, the snake is described as the "most widespread and ubiquitous" serpent, from wilderness to urban environments and from sea level to high elevations.
The Eastern Garter Snake will live in a variety of environments, with a preference for grassy or shrubby fields, including abandoned farmland, outbuildings and trash dumps. In particular the snake likes to inhabit stone walls that separate the forest from fields. It is also found along moist habitats such as lakes, rivers, streams, swamps, bogs, ponds, drainage ditches, quarries. Snakes are present in urban environments in habitats that include "city parks, cemeteries and suburban yards and gardens". Eastern Garter Snakes like to conceal themselves under logs, stones and other debris that allow them to bask in the sunlight and quickly seek refuge from predators. Krulikowski notes that "[o]ld poultry farms with discarded sheet-metal incubation trays provide warm, moist hiding places."
They mostly eat toads, frogs, slugs, and worms, but they will eat almost anything that they can overpower.
- Krulikowski, Linda (2004). Snakes of New England. Lebon Press. pp. 72–84. ISBN 0976431602.
- "Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Eastern Garter Snake". wcsu.edu. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Eastern Gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis), Ontario Nature