This article possibly contains original research. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The electronic tongue is an instrument that measures and compares tastes. As per the IUPAC technical report, an “electronic tongue” as analytical instrument including an array of non-selective chemical sensors with partial specificity to different solution components and an appropriate pattern recognition instrument, capable to recognize quantitative and qualitative compositions of simple and complex solutions.
Chemical compounds responsible for taste are detected by human taste receptors. Similarly, the multi-electrode sensors of electronic instruments detect the same dissolved organic and inorganic compounds. Like human receptors, each sensor has a spectrum of reactions different from the other. The information given by each sensor is complementary and the combination of all sensors' results generates a unique fingerprint. Most of the detection thresholds of sensors are similar to or better than those of human receptors.
In the biological mechanism, taste signals are transducted by nerves in the brain into electric signals. E-tongue sensors process is similar: they generate electric signals as voltammetric and potentiometric variations.
Taste quality perception and recognition is based on building or recognition of activated sensory nerve patterns by the brain and on the taste fingerprint of the product. This step is achieved by the e-tongue’s statistical software which interprets the sensor data into taste patterns.
One variation was developed by Professor Fredrik Winquist of Linköping University, Sweden.
Liquid samples are directly analyzed without any preparation, whereas solids require a preliminary dissolution before measurement. Reference electrode and sensors are dipped in a beaker containing a test solution. A voltage is applied between each sensor and a reference electrode, and a measurable current response results that is consistent with the Cottrell equation. This current response is a result of oxidizing reactions that take place in the solution due to the voltage difference, and can be amplified through catalytic surface treatments. The response is measured and recorded by the e-tongue's software. These data represent the input for mathematical treatment that will deliver results.
Electronic tongues have several applications in various industrial areas: the pharmaceutical industry, food and beverage sector, etc. It can be used to:
- analyze flavor ageing in beverages (for instance fruit juice, alcoholic or non alcoholic drinks, flavored milks...)
- quantify bitterness or “spicy level” of drinks or dissolved compounds (e.g. bitterness measurement and prediction of teas)
- estimation of theaflavins in black tea
- quantify taste masking efficiency of formulations (tablets, syrups, powders, capsules, lozenges...)
- analyze medicines stability in terms of taste
- benchmark target products
- monitor environmental parameters
- monitor biological and biochemical processes
The electronic tongue uses taste sensors to receive information from chemicals on the tongue and send it to a pattern recognition system. The result is the detection of the tastes that compose the human palate. The types of taste that is generated is divided into five categories sourness, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami (savoriness). Sourness, which includes hydrogen chloride, acetic acid, and citric acid, is created by hydrogen ions. Saltiness is registered as sodium chloride, sweetness by sugars, bitterness, which includes chemicals such as quinine and caffeine is detected through magnesium chloride, and umami by monosodium glutamate from seaweed, or disodium guanylate in meat/fish/mushrooms.
- Vlasov, Yu; Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Natale, C. Di; D'Amico, A. (2005-01-01). "Nonspecific sensor arrays ("electronic tongue") for chemical analysis of liquids (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 77 (11): 1965–1983. doi:10.1351/pac200577111965. ISSN 0033-4545.
- "Fredrik Winquist". www.ifm.liu.se. Retrieved 2015-09-11.
- Kumar, S.; Ghosh, A. (2020-05-14). "A Feature Extraction Method Using Linear Model Identification of Voltammetric Electronic Tongue". IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 69 (11): 9243–9250. doi:10.1109/TIM.2020.2994604. ISSN 1557-9662.
This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. (September 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Khalilian, Alireza; Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won (1 October 2017). "Highly sensitive and wide-dynamic-range side-polished fiber-optic taste sensor". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 249: 700–707. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2017.04.088.