Engel scale

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The Engel scale was developed by James F. Engel, as a way of representing the journey from no knowledge of God, through to spiritual maturity as a Christian believer. The model is used by some Christians to emphasize the process of conversion and the various decision-making steps that a person goes through in becoming a Christian.[1]

     +5 Stewardship
    +4 Communion with God
   +3 Conceptual and behavioral growth
  +2 Incorporation into Body
 +1 Post-decision evaluation
New birth
 -1 Repentance and faith in Christ
  -2 Decision to act
   -3 Personal problem recognition
    -4 Positive attitude towards Gospel
     -5 Grasp implications of Gospel
      -6 Awareness of fundamentals of Gospel
       -7 Initial awareness of Gospel
        -8 Awareness of supreme being, no knowledge of Gospel


The original model was developed by James F. Engel and Viggo Søgaard, although this was later refined by Engel, who added several ideas from behavioural science, and published it in his 1975 book What's Gone Wrong With the Harvest. According to this model, everyone is somewhere on this scale.[1]

The Engel scale has been criticized for its fixed linear approach, moreover a number of people have since introduced modifications.[5] One of these is the Gray Matrix by Frank Gray of Far East Broadcasting Company (FEBC International), which is a two-dimensional model showing progression along two scales: knowledge of the Gospel and attitude toward it.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b A. Scott Moreau, Harold A. Netland, Charles Edward van Engen, David Burnett Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions
  2. ^ "Engel scale - a detailed graphic presentation". internetevangelismday.com.
  3. ^ J. F. Engel and W. H. Norton, What's Gone Wrong With the Harvest?
  4. ^ J. F. Engel, Contemporary Christian Communication
  5. ^ "The Modified Engel Scale (Complete) - an article by Paul Hazelden". hazelden.org.uk.
  6. ^ The Gray Matrix Home Page