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The EpiDoc Collaborative, building recommendations for structured markup of epigraphic documents in TEI XML, was originally formed in 2000 by scholars at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Tom Elliott, the former director of the Ancient World Mapping Center, with Hugh Cayless and Amy Hawkins. The guidelines have matured considerably through extensive discussion on the Markup list and other discussion fora, at several conferences, and through the experience of various pilot projects. The first major—but not by any means the only—epigraphic project to adopt and pilot the EpiDoc recommendations were the Inscriptions of Aphrodisias and Vindolanda Tablets Online in 2002-4, and the guidelines reached a degree of stability for the first time in that period. EpiDoc has since been adopted as the native format for the Greek Papyrology site, Papyri.info.

The EpiDoc schema and guidelines may also be applied, perhaps with some local modification to related palaeographical fields including Sigillography, and Numismatics.

Guidelines and Schema[edit]

The EpiDoc Guidelines are available in two forms:

  1. the stable guidelines, released periodically [1]
  2. the source code, available in its most up-to-date form in the EpiDoc Sourceforge repository. The Guidelines source files are a series of XML documents, plus XSLT to transform them to the web version. [2]

The EpiDoc Schema is also available in two forms:

  1. the latest stable version of the schema, which may be linked to directly by XML documents. [3]
  2. the source code (a TEI ODD), available in its most up-to-date form in the EpiDoc SourceForge repository.[4]


Other tools developed by and for the EpiDoc community include:

  • The EpiDoc Reference Stylesheets (XSLT), available from the SourceForge file repository. These stylesheets are also used to deliver the online Guidelines.[5]
  • CHET-C (the Chapel Hill Electronic Text-Converter), an application originally written in VBA, then as a free-standing Java app, and now available as a self-contained JavaScript platform written by Hugh Cayless. [6]
  • Transcoder: a Java tool for converting between Beta Code, Unicode NF C, Unicode NF D, and GreekKeys encoding for Greek script on the fly.[7]
  • EFES (EpiDoc Front-End Services): an "out of the box" software package for the publication of EpiDoc collections.[8]


Fuller list of projects maintained at:


  • Fernando-Luis Álvarez, Elena García-Barriocanal and Joaquín-L. Gómez-Pantoja, 'Sharing Epigraphic Information as Linked Data', in (eds. Sanchez-Alonso & Athanasiadis), Metadata and semantic research (Springer 2010), pp. 222–234. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007%2F978-3-642-16552-8_21 (PAYWALL) (accessed 2011-01-06)
  • Lisa Anderson and Heidi Wendt, 'Ancient Relationships, Modern Intellectual Horizons: The practical challenges and possibilities of encoding Greek and Latin inscriptions.' In ed. M.T. Rutz & M.M. Kersel, Archaeologies of Text: Archaeology, Technology, and Ethics. Oxbow Books, 2014 (Joukowsky Institute Publication 6). Pp. 164–175.
  • Alison Babeu, 'Epigraphy', “Rome Wasn’t Digitized in a Day”: Building a Cyberinfrastructure for Digital Classicists Draft Version 1.3—11/18/10, pp. 73–89. CLIR, 2010. Online at: http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub150
  • Roger S. Bagnall, 'Integrating Digital Papyrology', presented at Online Humanities Scholarship: The Shape of Things to Come, University of Virginia, March 26–28, 2010. Available: http://archive.nyu.edu/handle/2451/29592 (accessed 2011-01-06)
  • Monica Berti (2015). "The Linked Fragment: TEI and the Encoding of Text Reuses of Lost Authors." _Journal of the TEI_ 8 (2014-15). Available: http://doi.org/10.4000/jtei.1218
  • Gabriel Bodard, 'The Inscriptions of Aphrodisias as electronic publication: A user's perspective and a proposed paradigm' in Digital Medievalist 4 (2008), available http://doi.org/10.16995/dm.19 (accessed 2011-01-06)
  • Gabriel Bodard, 'EpiDoc: Epigraphic Documents in XML for Publication and Interchange', in (ed. F. Feraudi-Gruénais) Latin On Stone: epigraphic research and electronic archives (Lexington Books, 2010), pp. 101–118.
  • Gabriel Bodard, 'Digital Epigraphy and Lexicographical and Onomastic Markup'. Pre-press available: http://www.stoa.org/archives/1226 (accessed 2011-01-06)
  • Bodard, G and Stoyanova, S. 2016. "Epigraphers and Encoders: Strategies for Teaching and Learning Digital Epigraphy." In: Bodard, G & Romanello, M (eds.) Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber: Teaching, Knowledge Exchange & Public Engagement, Pp. 51–68. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.5334/bat.d.
  • Hugh Cayless, Charlotte Roueché et al., 'Epigraphy in 2017', Digital Humanities Quarterly 3.1 (2009), available: http://digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/3/1/000030/000030.html (accessed 2011-01-06)
  • Dee, S, Foradi, M and Šarić, F. 2016. "Learning By Doing: Learning to Implement the TEI Guidelines Through Digital Classics Publication." In: Bodard, G & Romanello, M (eds.) Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber: Teaching, Knowledge Exchange & Public Engagement, Pp. 15–32. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.5334/bat.b
  • Julia Flanders & Charlotte Roueché, 'Introduction for Epigraphers', online at http://www.stoa.org/epidoc/gl/latest/intro-eps.html (available: 2014-01-13)
  • Liuzzo, Pietro Maria. “Chapter 2: Comparing Inscriptions” _Digital Approaches to Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies_. Aethiopica Supplement 8. Harrassowitz Verlag, 2019. Pp. 47–74. Available: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvrnfr3q.
  • Löser, Laura (2014), “Meeting the Needs of Today’s Audiences of Epigraphy with Digital Editions.” In Orlandi, Santucci et al., Information Technologies for Epigraphy and Cultural Heritage. Proceedings of the First EAGLE International Conference. Rome. Pp. 231–254. Available: http://www.eagle-network.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Paris-Conference-Proceedings.pdf#5f
  • Anne Mahoney, 'Epigraphy', in (eds. Burnard, O'Brian & Unsworth) Electronic Textual Editing (2006), preview online at http://www.tei-c.org/Activities/ETE/Preview/mahoney.xml (accessed: 2006-04-07)
  • Silvia Orlandi, Raffaella Santucci, Vittore Casarosa, Pietro Maria Liuzzo (eds.), Information Technologies for Epigraphy and Cultural Heritage. Proceedings of the first EAGLE International Conference, Rome, 2014. On line at: http://www.eagle-network.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Paris-Conference-Proceedings.pdf
  • Charlotte Roueché & Gabriel Bodard, 'The Epidoc Aphrodisias Pilot Project', Forum Archaeologiae 23/VI/2002, online at http://farch.net (accessed: 2006-04-07)
  • Charlotte Roueché, 'Digitizing Inscribed Texts', in Text Editing, Print and the Digital World (Ashgate, 2008) pp. 159–168.
  • Joshua D. Sosin, 'Digital Papyrology', Congress of the International Association of Papyrologists, 19 August 2010, Geneva. Available: http://www.stoa.org/archives/1263 (accessed 2011-01-06)
  • Charlotte Tupman, 'Contextual epigraphy and XML: digital publication and its application to the study of inscribed funerary monuments', in (eds. Bodard & Mahony) Digital Research in the Study of Classical Antiquity (Ashgate, 2010), pp. 73–86.
  • Daniel A. Werning (2016), 'Towards guidelines for TEI encoding of text artefacts in Egyptology'. In Monica Berti (ed.), Epigraphy Edit-a-thon. Editing chronological and geographic data in ancient inscriptions. Leipzig, April 20-22, 2016.


See also[edit]

External links[edit]