Ernest William Hawkes

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Ernest William Hawkes (born 1881 or 1883, died 1954 or 1957) was an American anthropologist best known for his work studying the indigenous peoples of Alaska and northern Canada. His brother was the well-known "blind naturist" Clarence Hawkes of Massachusetts.[1] E. W. Hawkes studied at Dakota Wesleyan University (1909) and Pennsylvania University (1913, 1915).[2]

Over the course of multiple trips to Alaska and northern Canada, Hawkes gathered data for his books. His 1914 publication Dance Festivals of the Alaskan Eskimo was based on the three years Hawkes spent in the Bering Strait District, including on the Diomede Islands and at St. Michael.[3] It was while stationed at St. Michael as a government teacher over the winter of 1911-1912 that Hawkes observed the traditional Inuit "Messenger Feast", which he recounted in his 1913 Inviting In.[4] His 1916 The Labrador Eskimo was based on his experiences in summer 1914 with the Geological Survey of Canada in the Hudson Bay area.[3][5]

Hawkes held a variety of university fellowships in Anthropology, including Columbia University (1913–1914). and Harrison College (1914–1916).[2]

Selected works[edit]

  • Transforming the Eskimo Into a Herder: An Account of the Reindeer Industry in Alaska (1913)
  • The dance festivals of the Alaskan Eskimo (1914)
  • A pre-Lenape site in New Jersey (1916)
  • The Labrador Eskimo (1916)
  • Skeletal Measurements and Observations on the Point Barrow Eskimo with Comparisons with Other Eskimo Groups (1916)


  1. ^ Marla R. Miller (31 May 2009). Cultivating a Past: Essays on the History of Hadley, Massachusetts. Univ of Massachusetts Press. pp. 292–. ISBN 978-1-55849-700-9. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b University of Pennsylvania (1916). The Pennsylvania gazette ...: Weekly magazine of the University of Pennsylvania. pp. 1238–. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  3. ^ a b E. W. Hawkes (15 December 2008). The Dance Festivals of the Alaskan Eskimo (Illustrated Edition) (Dodo Press). Dodo Press. ISBN 978-1-4099-4248-1. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  4. ^ Susan W. Fair (2006). Alaska Native Art: Tradition, Innovation, Continuity. University of Alaska Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-1-889963-79-2. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  5. ^ Historiographia linguistica. 1984. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 

External links[edit]