2-Chloroethanol

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2-Chloroethanol
Skeletal formula of 2-chloroethanol
Ball and stick model of 2-chloroethanol
Spacefill model of 2-chloroethanol
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
2-Chloroethan-1-ol[1]
Other names
  • 2-Chloroethanol[1]
  • Chloroethanol[2]
  • 2-Chloro-1-ethanol[2]
  • β-Chloroethanol[2]
  • δ-Chloroethanol[2]
  • 2-Chloroethyl alcohol[2]
  • Ethylchlorhydrin[2]
  • Ethylene chlorohydrin[2]
  • Glycol chlorohydrin[2]
  • Glycol monochlorohydrin[2]
  • 2-Hydroxyethyl chloride[2]
  • β-Hydroxyethyl chloride[2]
  • 2-Monochloroethanol[2]
Identifiers
107-07-3 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
3DMet B01042
878139
ChEBI CHEBI:28200 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL191244 YesY
ChemSpider 21106015 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.146
EC Number 203-459-7
25389
KEGG C06753 YesY
MeSH Ethylene+Chlorohydrin
PubChem 34
RTECS number KK0875000
UNII 753N66IHAN YesY
UN number 1135
Properties
C2H5ClO
Molar mass 80.51 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Odor faint, ether-like
Density 1.201 g mL−1
Melting point −62.60 °C; −80.68 °F; 210.55 K
Boiling point 127 to 131 °C; 260 to 268 °F; 400 to 404 K
miscible[3]
log P −0.107
Vapor pressure 700 Pa (at 20 °C)
1.441
Thermochemistry
−1.1914 MJ mol−1
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H226, H300, H310, H330
P260, P280, P284, P301+310, P302+350
Very Toxic T+
R-phrases R26/27/28
S-phrases (S1/2), S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g., diesel fuel Health code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gas Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 55 °C (131 °F; 328 K)
425 °C (797 °F; 698 K)
Explosive limits 5–16%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
67 mg kg−1 (dermal, rabbit)[citation needed]
72 mg/kg (rat, oral)
81 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
71 mg/kg (rat, oral)
110 mg/kg (guinea pig, oral)[4]
7.5 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
32 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
260 ppm (guinea pig)
33 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
87 ppm (rat)
115 ppm (mouse)[4]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 5 ppm (16 mg/m3) [skin][3]
REL (Recommended)
C 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) [skin][3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
7 ppm[3]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

2-Chloroethanol is an chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2Cl and the simplest chlorohydrin. This colorless liquid has a pleasant ether-like odor. It is miscible with water. The molecule is bifunctional, consisting of both an alkyl chloride and an alcohol functional groups.

Synthesis and applications[edit]

2-Chloroethanol is produced by treating ethylene with hypochlorous acid:

Synthesis of 2-chlorethanol by treating ethylene with hypochlorous acid

2-Chloroethanol was once produced on a large scale as a precursor to ethylene oxide:

Synthesis of ethylene oxide from 2-chloroethanol

This application has been supplanted by the greener direct oxidation of ethylene. Otherwise chloroethanol is used in a number of specialized applications.[6] Several dyes are prepared by the alkylation of aniline derivatives with chloroethanol.[7] It is a building block in the production of pharmaceuticals, biocides and plasticizers. It is also used for manufacture of thiodiglycol. It is a solvent for cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose, textile printing dyes, in dewaxing, refining of rosin, extraction of pine lignin, and the cleaning of machines.

An example is the reaction with theophylline to form Etofylline. Another example is the reaction with chlorphentermine to give Etolorex.

Environmental aspects[edit]

Chloroethanol is a metabolite in the degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane. The alcohol is then further oxidized via chloroacetaldehyde to chloroacetate. This metabolic pathway is topical since billions of kilograms of 1,2-dichloroethane are processed annually as a precursor to vinyl chloride.[8]

Safety[edit]

2-Chloroethanol is toxic with an LD50 of 89 mg/kg in rats. Like most organochlorine compounds, chloroethanol combusts to yield hydrogen chloride and phosgene.

In regards to dermal exposure to 2-chloroethanol, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit of 5 ppm (16 mg/m3) over an eight-hour time-weighted average, while the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has a more protective recommended exposure limit of a 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) exposure ceiling.[9]

It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 29. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. For example, the omission of the locant ‘1’ in 2-chloroethanol, while permissible in general usage, is not allowed in preferred IUPAC names, thus the name 2-chloroethan-1-ol is the PIN. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Depositor-supplied synonyms for CID 34
  3. ^ a b c d "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0268". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  4. ^ a b "Ethylene chlorohydrin". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  5. ^ http://www.newenv.com/resources/nfpa_chemicals
  6. ^ Gordon Y. T. Liu, W. Frank Richey, Joanne E. Betso "Chlorohydrins" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_565
  7. ^ Roderich Raue and John F. Corbett "Nitro and Nitroso Dyes" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_383
  8. ^ 1. Janssen, D. B.; van der Ploeg, J. R. and Pries, F., "Genetics and Biochemistry of 1,2-Dichloroethane Degradation", Biodegradation, 1994, volume 5, pp. 249-57.doi:10.1007/BF00696463
  9. ^ CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  10. ^ "40 C.F.R.: Appendix A to Part 355—The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities" (PDF) (July 1, 2008 ed.). Government Printing Office. Retrieved October 29, 2011.