FRAX is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the 10-year probability of bone fracture risk. It was developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases at Sheffield University. FRAX integrates clinical risk factors and bone mineral density at the femoral neck to calculate the 10-year probability of hip fracture and the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture (clinical spine, forearm, hip or shoulder fracture). The models used to develop the FRAX diagnostic tool were derived from studying patient populations in North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia and Australia.
The parameters included in a FRAX assessment are:
- Previous fracture
- Hip fracture in the subject's mother or father
- Glucocorticoid treatment
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Disease strongly associated with osteoporosis
- Alcohol intake of 3 or more standard drinks per day
- Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck
Availability and usage
FRAX is freely accessible online, and commercially available as a desktop application, in paper-form as a FRAX Pad, as an iPhone application, and as an Android application. The tool is compatible with 58 models for 53 countries, and is available in 28 languages.
FRAX is incorporated into many national guidelines around the world, including those of Belgium, Canada, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, UK (NOGG), and US (NOF). FRAX assessments are intended to provide guidance for determining access to treatment in healthcare systems.
- "WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool". 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- "WHO Scientific Group Technical Review of FRAX" (PDF). 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E (2011). "Osteoporosis International". Osteoporos Int 19 (4): 385–97. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0543-5. PMC 2267485. PMID 18292978.
- "International Osteoporosis Foundation". 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-10.