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Purposeascertain bone fracture risk

FRAX (fracture risk assessment tool) is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the 10-year probability of bone fracture risk. It was developed by the University of Sheffield.[1] FRAX integrates clinical risk factors and bone mineral density at the femoral neck to calculate the 10-year probability of hip fracture and the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture (clinical spine, forearm, hip or shoulder fracture).[2] The models used to develop the FRAX diagnostic tool were derived from studying patient populations in North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia and Australia.[3]


The parameters included in a FRAX assessment are:[1]

Availability and usage[edit]

FRAX is freely accessible online, and commercially available as a desktop application, in paper-form as a FRAX pad, as an iPhone application, and as an Android application. The tool is compatible with 58 models for 53 countries, and is available in 28 languages.[1]

FRAX is incorporated into many national guidelines around the world, including those of Belgium, Canada, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, UK (NOGG), and US (NOF). FRAX assessments are intended to provide guidance for determining access to treatment in healthcare systems.[4]


Glucocorticoid use is included FRAX as a dichotomous variable, whereas the increased risk for fractures seen with glucocorticoid use is dependent on glucocorticoid dose and duration of use. Several methods have been proposed how to adjust FRAX accordingly.[5]

Though known to be a risk factor for fractures, type 2 diabetes is not included as such in FRAX. Some clinicians choose rheumatoid arthritis as an equivalent risk factor instead.[5]

FRAX was developed and most commonly used to assess fracture risk for previously untreated individuals, though some have suggested it can also be used in those treated in the past or even on current treatment for osteoporosis.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Fracture Risk Assessment Tool".
  2. ^ "WHO Scientific Group Technical Review of FRAX" (PDF). 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
  3. ^ Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E (2011). "Osteoporosis International". Osteoporos Int. 19 (4): 385–97. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0543-5. PMC 2267485. PMID 18292978.
  4. ^ "International Osteoporosis Foundation". 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
  5. ^ a b Kanis, J. A.; Johansson, H.; Oden, A.; McCloskey, E. V. (2011-03-01). "Guidance for the adjustment of FRAX according to the dose of glucocorticoids". Osteoporosis International. 22 (3): 809–816. doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1524-7. ISSN 1433-2965. PMID 21229233. S2CID 21223590.
  6. ^ Leslie, William D; Lix, Lisa M; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene; Kanis, John A; for the Manitoba Bone Density Program (June 2012). "Does osteoporosis therapy invalidate FRAX for fracture prediction?". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 27 (6): 1243–1251. doi:10.1002/jbmr.1582. PMID 22392538. S2CID 42754386.

External links[edit]