Fill and finish

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In the pharmaceutical industry, fill and finish (also referred to as fill finish, fill-finish or fill/finish) is the process of filling vials with vaccine and finishing the process of packaging the medicine for distribution. Many vaccine manufacturers use third parties to fill and finish their vaccines.[1]

The fill/finish process is a common bottleneck in the manufacturing and deployment of vaccines.[1][2][3][4]

To address this problem, in 2013 the U.S. federal government created the Fill Finish Manufacturing Network, a network of third-party provider contracts intended to perform fill and finish operations for vaccines against future infectious diseases.[5][6]

As part of its response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK government has provided financial support for fill and finish operations.[7]


  1. ^ a b "Fill / finish". 26 July 2020.
  2. ^ "Vaccine Taskforce Aims" (PDF). 6 April 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  3. ^ Pagliusi, Sonia; Jarrett, Stephen; Hayman, Benoit; Kreysa, Ulrike; Prasad, Sai D.; Reers, Martin; Hong Thai, Pham; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Youn Tao; Baek, Yeong Ok; Kumar, Anand (July 2020). "Emerging manufacturers engagements in the COVID −19 vaccine research, development and supply". Vaccine. 38 (34): 5418–5423. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.06.022. PMC 7287474. PMID 32600908.
  4. ^ Miller, Joe; Kuchler, Hannah (2020-04-28). "Drugmakers race to scale up vaccine capacity". Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  5. ^ "HHS boosts national capacity to produce pandemic flu vaccine: New fill and finish manufacturing network strengthens pandemic readiness". Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  6. ^ "Fill Finish Manufacturing Network". Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  7. ^ "Millions could be vaccinated against COVID-19 as UK secures strong portfolio of promising vaccines". GOV.UK. 20 July 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-26.