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|Stadtteil of Kelkheim|
|• Total||6.81 km2 (2.63 sq mi)|
|Elevation||222 m (728 ft)|
|• Density||880/km2 (2,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Fischbach (English: fish creek) is one of six quarters of Kelkheim, Main-Taunus district of Germany and is situated at the western border of Frankfurt am Main in the Taunus mountain range. Fischbach is a middle-class town and has about 5,900 inhabitants.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Points of interest
- 4 Public facilities
- 5 Events
- 6 References
The town is situated in the valley of a creek with the same name in the Taunus mountain range. Neighbour towns are Hornau in the east, Kelkheim-Mitte in the southeast and Ruppertshain in the northwest as well as the cities of Eppstein in the west and Königstein im Taunus in the northeast. The eponymous creek has its source below Ruppertshain, flows through Fischbach and the tight Fischbachtal (fish creek valley), until the creek reaches the Schwarzbach (black creek) in Eppstein. Fischbach is surrounded of three mountains, Fischbacher Kopf, Staufen and Rossert. Despite of the idyllic location, Fischbach is mainly a suburb of Frankfurt Rhein-Main Region.
Bundesstraße 455 (federal highway 455) heads from Königstein via Fischbach to Eppstein and Wiesbaden. The former through road was substituted by a bypass in the early 1980s. The new road does not bypass Fischbach but crosses the town on an artificial embankment which destroyed the meadows of the creek. The town center at Langstraße is crossed by a bridge. Three bus routes connect Fischbach with Frankfurt Transit system - mainly Kelkheim railway station.
Structure of the town
The old town center is situated at the intersection of the main roads Kelkheim–Ruppertshain and Königstein–Eppstein. The first road, Langstraße, is the main road of the old part of the village. The town was protected by the creek and a trench. In the 19th century Fischbach grew along both streets, especially Kelkheimer Straße and Eppsteiner Straße. After World War II, Fischbach grew due to settlements of refugees. Street names like Egerländer Straße and Königsberger Straße reminded old homes of new Fischbach residents. The residential areas were built, on both sides of Kelkheimer Straße and on the south-side of the town, around Staufenstraße and Sodener Straße. In the north, only a small residential estate was built on a former brickyard area (An der Ziegelei). Out of the village at the street to Königstein, summer cottages were built in the 70s. Nowadays people are living there all the time.
Fischbach was founded by Franks. The first document which proves the existence of Fischbach (gift to Fulda convent), is dated in the year 780. In the 8th and 9th century imperial laws appear. In 813, the village was in possession of Earl Liutfried as royal feud. Starting from 890 Fischbach was part of the shire of Uualahes and during early and high middle ages a member of the Niddagau province.
In 1348 the Lords of Eppstein became the new rulers. In 1581 Fischbach became part of Archbishopric of Mainz and was governed from Königstein. After Napoleon split the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Fischbach and the vicinity was part of Duchy of Nassau. Nassau was annexed by Prussia in 1866 degraded to Wiesbaden district of the Prussian province Hessen-Nassau. Fischbach attended to this administration till the foundation of Hesse in 1946.
After being integrated to Prussia, Fischbach belonged to the Upper-Taunus district. Since 1928 it was part of the newly founded Main-Taunus district. In 1977 Fischbach was incorporated to the city of Kelkheim, together with the former community Rossert (Ruppertshain and Eppenhain).
Coat of arms
The emblem shows the „chevrons of Eppstein“ on the right as symbol of the former affiliation to the neighbour town. When Fischbach was part of Archbishopric of Mainz, the chevrons had been substituted by the „wheel of Mainz“ (Mainzer Rad). It has been removed after Fischbach became part of Hessen-Nassau. The left field shows, according to the town name, two red fishes in a silver creek.
The economy of the village was based on agriculture and fruit-growing for centuries. Typically for the lower Taunus are fruit grasslands with apple trees. Since the beginning of the 19th century, many carpenters and joineries were located in the town. Different from Kelkheim, the furniture industry could not be conserved to the present. Besides, the clayey ground allowed setting up brickyards. Also the industry, especially Farbwerke in Höchst (Hoechst AG, today Industriepark Höchst), is a source of income since the late 19th century. The opening of railway line from Königstein to Höchst in 1901 improved the connections to Höchst and Frankfurt. Before that, many workers had to walk every morning to Soden railway station (approx. 8 km (5.0 mi)).
After World War II, Fischbach had about 1,000 inhabitants. Due to refugee settlement, mainly from Sudetenland, the number of residents was doubled. The village became even bigger in the 60s and 70s due to suburbanization. Fischbach changed from a small Taunus-village to a suburb of Frankfurt. The number of residents rose to about 6,000 in the early 80s and is not changing a lot since that time. Due to strong immigration of citizens from Frankfurt, the confessional (mainly catholic in former times) and the social structure changed: in addition to the long-established village residents, mostly craftsmen and farmers, an academic affected middle-class appeared (employees of Hoechst AG)
Points of interest
Church Saint Trinity
In 1781, church Saint Trinity substituted an older church which was built in 1686. The building contains some extravaganza of this time and provides an impressive view from the lower meadows nearby. The church contains the so-called “Roteltisstein”, a Christian tombstone from the 7th century. It was transferred to Fischbach in 1868 from a demolished pilgrim chapel nearby (Gimbach). The stone proves the early Christianisation in this region.
Church Saint John
Like everywhere in the former area of Archbishopric of Mainz, inhabitants of Fischbach were traditionally catholic. The result of the large number of Protestants immigrated after World War II, was a growing demand for a Protestant church. A community was founded in the 60s and is named after John the Baptist. The church has a modern style and has big, coloured windows.
Rettershof, northeast of Fischbach, was founded in 1186 as a premonstratensian convent. During the protestant reformation, the land lord closed the convent in 1559 and converted it to a manor. The church of the convent was destroyed during the Thirty Years war. In 1884 an English man bought the manor and built a new mansion in Tudor Style architecture. His successors built a restaurant in 1938, which offered products of the manor. The city of Kelkheim bought Rettershof in 1980 and renovated it. Today, Rettershof consists of three parts: the historically styled yard of the manor, the former mansion and the restaurant. Nearby is a horse-riding range. In the 80s, the mansion was the European headquarters of Hare Krishna-sect for a short time. Today it has been extended to a high-priced hotel.
Though Hofgut Gimbach can only reached by car via Kelkheim, it belongs to Fischbach. The way from Fischbach to Gimbacher Hof is only for pedestrians and bikes. The way leads through a protected landscape with fruit grasslands. Until 1868, Gimbach was the location of a pilgrim chapel. After their demolition, the altar was transferred to Saint Trinity in Fischbach, but the „Gimbach pilgrimage“ exists even today.
The name is derived from three small creeks, which join together as Gimbach close to the manor. The first document which proves the existence is dated in the year 1287 as "Gynnenbach".
The manor runs horse breeding; ciders press (Apfelwein) and a campground as well as a popular restaurant which offers self-made Apfelwein.
The bronze fountain in the village center was created in 1987 by Johannes Norbert Klarmann. It shows a craftsman, who drinks water from the fountain. Hanseklinger is a nickname for residents of Fischbach. The derivation of the term has not been clarified.
Former town hall, today community center.
The town hall of Fischbach was established shortly before the village was incorporated to Kelkheim. Today the building is community center, contains outposts of Kelkheim city authorities and is home for several clubs. The functional architecture is typical for buildings of the 70s. Fire brigade facilities are also located at the town hall square.
Albert-von Reinach-school is an elementary school. It is located above the town hall square and consists of two buildings. The catchments area is equivalent to Fischbach area. The school is named after Albert von Reinach (* November 7, 1842 in Frankfurt am Main; † January 12, 1905). He was a banker from Frankfurt, who built a villa nearby the village. Albert von Reinach supported the school with noble donations. The older building was erected in 1952/54, the newer one in 1967. The complex replaced the old school building near St. Trinity church, which was placed there at least since 1822 and demolished in 1967. The first school in Fischbach was documented in 1604.
Staufen school / Eichendorff school
Staufenschule (5th – 10th form) had been a comprehensive school for children from Fischbach, Hornau, Ruppertshain and Eppenhain. For several years, it was a secondary school. too. The building is also built in 70s architecture style. Since July 31, 2006, it has been a branch of Kelkheim's Eichendorff school.
After a long planning-period, a new sports hall opened its gates in 2002. The “Staufenhalle” replaced an old version from 1971. The hall is the largest roofed room in Kelkheim. It has a small tribune and is used by the upper mentioned schools as well as by several sports clubs and for events of regional interest.
Open air sports events take place on Fischbach sports field. It’s located on a border of a wood in the west-end of the village. It is mainly used for football matches of the local football club SV Fischbach and was opened on May 31, 1930. In 1952 the area was modified. The ground had been rotated by 90 degrees, changing rooms were built. The sports field reopened on August 2, 1953. In 1982 the facilities were renovated and a house for club activities was built. The sports field was equipped with an artificial turf during summer 2008.
The Kermesse (Kerb) in fall has only local meaning. The Kermesse is celebrated on town hall square. The fire brigade, which is also located there, has to move all vehicles to another place during this time.
The Protestant church community celebrates Saint John’s day (June 24).
The Hanseklinger festival in late summer is celebrated in the village center around the homonymous fountain.