Floruit (//; abbr. fl. or occasionally flor.; from Latin floruit 'he/she flourished') denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. In English, the unabbreviated word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished.
Etymology and use
Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. More specifically, it often is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but some other evidence exists that indicates when he or she was alive. For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204, and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as "John Jones (fl. 1197–1229)".
In some cases, it can be replaced by the words "active between [date] and [date]", depending on context and if space or style permits.
- "floruit". Oxford Dictionaries UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
- "floruit". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
- Cassell's Latin Dictionary
- Adeleye, Gabriel; Kofi Acquah-Dadzie; Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough (1999). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: a Resource for Readers and Writers. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 0-86516-423-1. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
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- Johnson, W. McAllister (1990), Art History: Its Use and Abuse, University of Toronto Press, p. 307, ISBN 0-86516-423-1, retrieved 1 June 2010