Francisco Ciutat de Miguel

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Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (1909 – November 30, 1986) (known as Angelito)[1] was a Spanish communist[2] Lieutenant of infantry and Commander. He fought the Battle of Santander during the Spanish Civil War in the summer of 1937 as a Chief of Operations of the Army of the North.[3]

Outside Spain[edit]

After the end of the Civil War, de Miguel fled to the Soviet Union[2] where he joined the Voroshilov Academy and married Sofía Kokuina.[4] He later participated as a foreign military advisor to the Cuban Army during the Bay of Pigs Invasion.[1] He also assisted the Algerian Army against Morocco during the Sand War and participated in the Vietnam War.[5]

He later returned to Spain in 1977 after the death of Francisco Franco.[5]


Ciutat de Miguel had many aliases:

  • Masonic name: Algazel
  • Russian name: Pavel Pablovich Stepanov
  • Cuban alias: Ángel Martínez Riosola[6]
  • Short name: Paco
  • Commonly referred to as Angelito


  • Relatos y reflexiones de la Guerra de España 1936-1939 - Francisco Ciutat de Miguel. Forma Ediciones. Madrid 1978. (in Spanish)

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Zona de guerra: Espana y la revolucion cubana (1960–1962)". Duke University Press. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  2. ^ a b Aub, Max (2000). Campo de los almendros. Editorial Castalia. p. 204. ISBN 84-7039-858-X. 
  3. ^ "Batalla de Santander". OdB GCE. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  4. ^ "Memoria republicana". Archived from the original on 2007-02-18. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  5. ^ a b "Un hombre que tuvo tres nombres". Mercedes Rodríguez García. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  6. ^ ""Te llamarás Ángel, Ángel Martínez Riosola" (given by Fidel Castro)". Mercedes Rodríguez García. Retrieved 2007-04-26.