Friedmann's lark

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Friedmann's lark
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Alaudidae
Genus: Mirafra
M. pulpa
Binomial name
Mirafra pulpa
Friedmann, 1930
  • Mirafra cantillans marginata

Friedmann's lark (Mirafra pulpa) is a species of lark in the family Alaudidae found in East Africa.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

Formerly, some authorities considered Friedmann's lark to be a subspecies of the singing bush lark.[2] Alternate names for the species include Friedmann's bush lark, rufous lark and Sagon lark.


It is best identified by its distinctive song; a long, drawn-out singular note, hoo-ee-oo (with slight stress on the ee), repeated at 1 or 2 second intervals. It is heard more often at night, and given while atop a bush or during undulating display flights.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Friedmann's lark is found in southern Ethiopia, central and south-eastern Kenya, and north-eastern Tanzania, but its population and exact range are very poorly known.[3] The type specimen was collected in Ethiopia (from the Konso-Sagan area) in 1992, having been seen only one time since, in 1998; but most of what is known comes primarily from data collected in Tsavo East and West National Parks, in Kenya.[3] There are also a few records from Tanzania, from Mkomazi Game Reserve, south of Arusha.[3]

In general, the natural habitats of Friedmann's lark are subtropical or tropical dry lowland grasslands.[4] Being aloof and shy, it apparently chooses the moister (or less dry), ranker-growing of these areas, and where it can find it, those with more bush-cover. This is in contrast to the more dry, and more open environs preferred by many other species of lark.[3]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

It is nearly always witnessed only during certain times of year (in Tanzania, during rainy season, for example), to the exclusion of other times; and often amongst other migrant species. These observations would seem to suggest that it is a migratory bird, but more corroborating data is needed to make a definitive determination.[3]

Friedmann's lark appears to subsist mainly on small beetles, grasshoppers and other insects, as well as grass seeds.[3]


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Mirafra pulpa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Mirafra pulpa - Avibase". Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Phil Benstead, et al.; Friedmann's Lark - BirdLife Species Factsheet
  4. ^ "Friedmann's Lark - BirdLife Species Factsheet (Additional Data)". BirdLife International. 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2009.

Cited works[edit]