Gabriel de Castilla
In March 1603, Castilla was at the head of an expedition that weighed anchor from Valparaiso. Under his control were three ships: the galleon Jesús María, of 600 tons and 30 cannons, Our Lady of the Visitación (which had belonged to Richard Hawkins) and Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes. The expedition was entrusted by the Viceroy of Peru, Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas, to suppress the incursions of Dutch privateers in the seas to the south of Chile.
Historians conjecture that they penetrated to a latitude of (64° S) in the Southern Ocean, south of Drake Passage.[dubious ] If correct, this would be the farthest south that anyone had travelled, at that time. Subsequently, several merchant vessels reported being blown south of 60° S [66.67g S] rounding Cabo de Hornos in severe weather.
- Vázquez de Acuña, Isidoro. Don Gabriel de Castilla primer avistador de la Antártica en Revista de Marina 1993 N° 2, Valparaíso: Armada de Chile.
- The Spanish Antarctic station Gabriel de Castilla
- (Spanish) Don Gabriel de Castilla, primer avistador de la Antártica, by Chilean historian Isidoro Vázquez de Acuña (Spanish language)
- (Spanish) http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cCF3YTfndhQC&pg=PA355#v=onepage&q&f=false This links to another, incomplete but substantial, version of the above.