Gateway (telecommunications)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A gateway is a piece of networking hardware or software used in telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol to connect multiple networks[1][2] and can operate at any of the seven layers of the OSI model.

The term gateway can also loosely refer to a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a gateway, such as a default gateway or router, and in the case of HTTP, gateway is also often used as a synonym for reverse proxy.[3] It can also refer to a device installed in homes that combines router and modem functionality into one device, used by ISPs, also called a residential gateway.[4][5][6]

Network gateway[edit]

A network gateway provides a connection between networks and contains devices, such as protocol translators, impedance matchers, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators. A network gateway requires the establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between the networks using the gateway. Network gateways, known as protocol translation gateways or mapping gateways, can perform protocol conversions to connect networks with different network protocol technologies. For example, a network gateway connects an office or home intranet to the Internet. If an office or home computer user wants to load a web page, at least two network gateways are accessed—one to get from the office or home network to the Internet and one to get from the Internet to the computer that serves the web page.

On an Internet Protocol (IP) network, IP packets with a destination outside a given subnetwork are sent to the network gateway. For example, if a private network has a base IPv4 address of and has a subnet mask of, then any data addressed to an IP address outside of– is sent to the network gateway. IPv6 networks work in a similar way. While forwarding an IP packet to another network, the gateway may perform network address translation.

In enterprise networks, a network gateway usually also acts as a proxy server and a firewall.[7]

On Microsoft Windows, the Internet Connection Sharing feature allows a computer to act as a gateway by offering a connection between the Internet and an internal network.[8][9]

Internet-to-orbit gateway[edit]

An Internet-to-orbit gateway (I2O) connects computers or devices on the Internet to computer systems orbiting Earth, such as satellites or crewed spacecraft. Project HERMES, run by the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency, was first to implement this kind of gateway on June 6, 2009.[10][11] Project HERMES has a maximum coverage of 22,000 km and can transmit voice and data. The Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO) is another type of I2O gateway.

Cloud storage gateway[edit]

A cloud storage gateway is a network appliance or server which translates cloud storage APIs such as SOAP or REST to block-based storage protocols such as iSCSI, Fiber Channel or file-based interfaces such as NFS or CIFS.[12][13] Cloud storage gateways enable companies to integrate private cloud storage into applications without moving the applications into a public cloud,[14] thereby simplifying data protection.[14]

IoT gateway[edit]

An Internet of things (IoT) gateway provides the bridge (protocol converter) between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud, and may provide offline services and real-time control of devices in the field.[15][16]

To achieve sustainable interoperability in the Internet of things ecosystem,[17][18] two dominant architectures for data exchange protocols are used: bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker-based (AMQP, CoAP, MQTT, JMI). Protocols that support information exchange between interoperable domains are classified as message-centric (AMQP, MQTT, JMS, REST) or data-centric (DDS, CoAP, XMPP).[19][20] Interconnected devices communicate using lightweight protocols that don't require extensive CPU resources. C, Java, Python and some scripting languages are the preferred choices of IoT application developers.[citation needed] IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways to handle protocol conversion, database storage or decision making (e.g. collision handling), in order to supplement the low intelligence of devices.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Network World. IDG Network World Inc. 1997-10-20.
  2. ^ "CCNA Certification/Network Layer - Wikibooks, open books for an open world". Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  3. ^ Fielding, Roy T.; Reschke, Julian (June 2014). "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing - 2.3". IETF. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  4. ^ Beasley, Jeffrey S.; Nilkaew, Piyasat (March 2012). Networking Essentials: Networking Essentials _c3. Pearson Education. ISBN 9780133381702.
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  6. ^ "PC Mag". 2 September 2003.
  7. ^ Zhang, Peng (2010-08-26). Advanced Industrial Control Technology. William Andrew. ISBN 9781437778083.
  8. ^ windows-sdk-content. "Using Wireless Hosted Network and Internet Connection Sharing - Windows applications". Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  9. ^ Zhang, Peng (2010-08-26). Advanced Industrial Control Technology. William Andrew. ISBN 9781437778083.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2009-09-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Orenstein, Gary (June 22, 2010). "GigaOm, Show Me the Gateway — Taking Storage to the Cloud". Archived from the original on May 15, 2019. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
  13. ^ Boles, Jeff (15 March 2011). "Cloud file storage pros and cons".
  14. ^ a b Slack, Eric (June 14, 2011). "Hybrid Cloud Appliances Simplify Data Storage Infrastructure". Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
  15. ^ Marvell Unveils Andromeda Box IoT Platform Made for Brillo Archived 2018-08-28 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 13 Nov.2015
  16. ^ Amazon Web Services Announces AWS IoT. Archived 2018-08-28 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 13 Nov.2015
  17. ^ "Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative". ITU. Retrieved 13 Nov.2015.
  18. ^ Arshdeep Bahga, Vijay Madisetti. "Internet of Things (A Hands-on-Approach)". VPT; 1 edition (August 9, 2014)
  19. ^ Stan Schneider. "What's the Difference between Message Centric and Data-Centric Middleware?". Electronic Design. Jul 6, 2012
  20. ^ Bryon Moyer. "All About Messaging Protocols What Are the Differences?". EE JOURNAL. April 20, 2015