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Geitonogamy (from Greek geiton (γείτων) = neighbor + gamein (γαμεῖν) = to marry) is a type of self-pollination.[1] Geitonogamous pollination is sometimes distinguished from the fertilizations that can result from it, geitonogamy.[2] If a plant is self-incompatible, geitonogamy can reduce seed production.[3]

Geitonogamy is when pollen is exported using a vector (pollinator or wind) out of one flower but only to another flower on the same plant. It is a form of self-fertilization.

In flowering plants, pollen is transferred from a flower to another flower on the same plant, and in animal pollinated systems this is accomplished by a pollinator visiting multiple flowers on the same plant. Geitonogamy is also possible within species that are wind-pollinated, and may actually be a quite common source of self-fertilized seeds in self-compatible species.[4] It also occurs in monoecious gymnosperms.[5] Although geitonogamy is functionally cross-pollination involving a pollinating agent, genetically it is similar to autogamy since the pollen grains come from the same plant.

Monoecious plants like maize show geitonogamy. Geitonogamy is not possible for strictly dioecious plants.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Eckert, C.G. (2000). "Contributions of autogamy and geitonogamy to self-fertilization in a mass-flowering, clonal plant". Ecology. 81 (2): 532–542. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[0532:coaagt];2.
  2. ^ Hessing, M.B. (1988). "Geitonogamous Pollination and Its Consequences in Gernium caespitosum". American Journal of Botany. 75 (9): 1324–1333. doi:10.2307/2444455. JSTOR 2444455.
  3. ^ Ito, E.; Kikuzawa, K., "Reduction of geitonogamy: Flower abscission for departure of pollinators", Ecological Research, 18 (2): 177–183, doi:10.1046/j.1440-1703.2003.00545.x
  4. ^ Friedman, J.; Barrett, S.C.H. (January 2009). "The consequences of monoecy and protogyny for mating in wind-pollinated Carex". New Phytologist. 181 (2): 489–497. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02664.x. PMID 19121043.
  5. ^ Williams, C.G. (2009). Conifer Reproductive Biology. New York: Springer. ISBN 9781402096013. OCLC 405547163.