Genderism

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For other uses, see genderism (disambiguation).

Genderism, or gender binarism, is the social system or cultural belief that gender is a binary, or that there are, or should be, only two gendersman and woman — and that the aspects of one's gender are inherently linked to one's genetic sex, or sex assigned at birth. These aspects may include expectations of dressing, behavior, sexual orientation, names/pronouns, preferred restroom, or any other quality attributed to their birth gender's representation, feminine or masculine.[1] These expectations may reinforce negative attitudes, bias, and discrimination towards people who display expressions of gender variance or nonconformity and/or whose gender identity is incongruent with their birth sex.[2] Genderism is of particular relevance to individuals who fall within the transgender spectrum, and is the overarching ideology responsible for transphobia and trans bashing.[3] In addition, much like how transphobia is parallel to homophobia, genderism is said to be parallel to heterosexism,[4][5][6][7] or the belief that heterosexuality is the superior or more desirable sexual orientation in comparison to homosexuality, bisexuality, asexuality, etc. Heteronormativity, the ideology that these two genders and heterosexual orientation are the social norm, also contributes to the rigid social constructs put in place for gender identity and sexuality. Gender binarism, like heterosexism, denies or ignores the existence of gender identities that do not fall in either of the two accepted categories: man and woman.[8]

LGBT community[edit]

Within the LGBT community genderism continues to create institutionalized structures of power. Many individuals who identify outside of traditional gender binaries experience discrimination and harassment within the LGBT community.[9] The majority of this discrimination stems from societal expectations of gender transgressing into the LGBT community. However, many individuals within the LGBT community feel it is important to move towards a more welcoming and anti-discriminate environment to diminish genderism.[9] Many youth activist groups advocate against genderism within the LGBT community.[10] Through doing such activism, youth are leading the LGBT community away from genderist ideologies and towards a welcoming and proactive community for both gender and sexuality.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beyond the Binary: Gender Identity Activism in Your School" (PDF). GSA Network. GSA Network. Summer 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2015. 
  2. ^ McGeeney, Ester; Harvey, Laura (2015). The Palgrave Handbook of the Psychology of Sexuality and Gender. Palgrave Handbooks. pp. 149–162. 
  3. ^ Transgender and Transsexual Identities: The Next Strange Fruit— Hate Crimes, Violence and Genocide Against the Global TransCommunities, Jeremy D. Kidd & Tarynn M. Witten, Journal of Hate Studies [Vol.6:31. June 2008] 31-63.
  4. ^ Shirley R. Steinberg (1 April 2009). Diversity and Multiculturalism: A Reader. Peter Lang. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-1-4331-0345-2. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  5. ^ Genny Beemyn; Susan R. Rankin (1 November 2011). The Lives of Transgender People. Columbia University Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-0-231-51261-9. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  6. ^ Derald Wing Sue (26 July 2010). Microaggressions and Marginality: Manifestation, Dynamics, and Impact. John Wiley & Sons. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-470-49139-3. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  7. ^ The Psychology Of Prejudice And Discrimination. ABC-CLIO. 2004. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-275-98234-8. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  8. ^ "Fact and Information Sheet About: Heterosexism" (PDF). James Madison University. Retrieved October 24, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b Farmer, Laura Boyd; Byrd, Rebekah (2015-10-02). "Genderism in the LGBTQQIA Community: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis". Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling. 9 (4): 288–310. doi:10.1080/15538605.2015.1103679. ISSN 1553-8605. 
  10. ^ a b Schindel, Jennifer E. (2008). "Gender 101— beyond the binary: Gay-straight alliances and gender activism". Sexuality Research and Social Policy. 5 (2): 56–70. doi:10.1525/srsp.2008.5.2.56.