Geographic data and information

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Geographic data and information is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth (a geographic location or geographic position).[1][2]

It is also called geospatial data and information,[citation needed] georeferenced data and information,[citation needed] as well as geodata and geoinformation.[citation needed] geospatial data and information include hydrospatial data and information. Hydrospatial is all about the blue of our blue planet and its contiguous zones.

Approximately 90% of government sourced data has a location component.[3] Location information (known by the many names mentioned here) is stored in a geographic information system (GIS).

There are also many different types of geodata, including vector files, raster files, geographic databases, web files, and multi-temporal data.[4]

Spatial data or spatial information is broader class of data whose geometry is relevant but it is not necessarily georeferenced, such as in computer-aided design (CAD), see geometric modeling.

Fields of study[edit]

Geographic data and information are the subject of a number of overlapping fields of study, mainly:

This is in addition to other more specific branches, such as:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Geolexica, the authoritative glossary for geographic information technology from ISO/TC 211
  2. ^ Geolexica, the authoritative glossary for geographic information technology from ISO/TC 211
  3. ^ Romero, Melissa (2017-11-07). "New Atlas tool has everything you need to know about Philly properties". Curbed. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  4. ^ says, Samir Mera (2019-06-17). "What is Geodata? A Guide to Geospatial Data". GIS Geography. Retrieved 2019-10-10.

Further reading[edit]

  • Roger A. Longhorn and Michael Blakemore (2007), Geographic Information: Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption, CRC Press.

External links[edit]