George Howard (Hebraist)

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George Howard is an American Hebraist, noted for his theories of Hebrew-language origins to the New Testament - including the possible use of the Tetragrammaton in the New Testament, and possible Hebrew origins of Matthew. He was formerly Associate Professor of Religion and Hebrew at the University of Georgia.[1][2]


  • Kaige Readings in Josephus, Textus 8 (1973) p. 45-54,
  • The Tetragram and the New Testament Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 96, No. 1 (Mar., 1977), pp. 63-83
  • "The Name of God in the New Testament" Biblical Archeology Review Vol. 4 No. 1 March 1978.[3]
  • "Tetragrammaton in the New Testament". The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume 6, Edited by David Noel Freedman Anchor Bible: New York. 1992 ISBN 978-0385261906
  • The Gospel of Matthew according to a primitive Hebrew text Macon, GA: Mercer University. 1987
  • Hebrew Gospel of Matthew (1995, 1998) argues that one of the rabbinical translations of Matthew found interspersed in the 14th-century Hebrew work The Touchstone of Ibn Shaprut may preserve a lost Hebrew original to the Greek Gospel of Matthew. Though scholars such as William Horbury (1999) generally reject Howard's thesis and consider Ibn Shaprut's text to be a translation of a medieval Latin version into Hebrew.[4][5][6][7][8]
  • Hebrew Gospel of Matthew article in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 p874
  • Paul: Crisis in Galatia: A Study in Early Christian Theology, 2004[9]
  • The Tetragram and the New Testament[10] Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 96, #1, March 1977, pp.63-83.


  1. ^ UGA Department of Religion Faculty List
  2. ^ George Howard The Tetragram and the New Testament Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 96, No. 1 (Mar., 1977), pp. 63-83
  3. ^ BAR 4(1) Issue TOC
  4. ^ Horbury Hebrew study from Ezra to Ben-Yehuda p128 "the Hebrew Matthew, mentioned above. 5 John Mill, in the Prolegomena to his 1707 edition of the New Testament, ... in the last few years, by George Howard.8 Both concentrated on the du Tillet-Mercier text, but Howard also urged,"
  5. ^ Horbury W., Jews and Christians 2006 p40
  6. ^ Horbury review Journal of Jewish Studies 47 (1996)
  7. ^ Horbury Appendix in Matthew 19-28 ed. William David Davies, Dale C. Allison
  8. ^ Maurice Casey Aramaic Sources of Mark's Gospel 1998 Page 61 "Hebrew found in the Evan Bohan, a fourteenth-century Jewish anti-Christian treatise by Shem-Tob ben-Isaac ben-Shaprut.208 Howard's only points of substance are that some of the translation is older than the treatise of Shem-Tob, and that"
  9. ^ p xvi "Book twelve of the treatise contains the entire Gospel of Matthew in Hebrew along with polemical comments by Shem-Tob ... A comparison of this old substratum with the canonical Greek text suggests that the Hebrew reflects a Jewish ."
  10. ^ JBL 96/1 pp.63-83[1] pdf