The Geroch energy or Geroch mass is one of the possible definitions of mass in general relativity. It can be derived from the Hawking energy, itself a measure of the bending of ingoing and outgoing rays of light that are orthogonal to a 2-sphere surrounding the region of space whose mass is to be defined, by leaving out certain (positive) terms related to the sphere's external and internal curvature.
- Section 6.2 in Szabados, László B. (2009), "Quasi-Local Energy-Momentum and Angular Momentum in GR", Living Rev. Relativity
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