Globus Jagellonicus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Jagiellonian globe also known as the Globus Jagellonicus dates from 1510. It is attributed to Jean Coudray, a French Clockmaker active in France. It is the oldest extant globe to  apply the name America[1].It bears a striking resemblance to the Lenox Globe dating from 1504 which is the third oldest extant known terrestrial globe, after the Erdapfel of Martin Behaim, made in Nuremberg in 1492 and the da Vinci Globe dating from 1504.[2] The anonymous globe gores erroneously attributed to have been made by Martin Waldseemüller already show America and are dated after 1518.[3]

The globus belonged to the medieval Cracow Academy which was in 1817 renamed the Jagiellonian University; it is featured on display at the Collegium Maius Museum. It was rediscovered in the early 1870s[4] and described as Globus Jagellonicus in 1900 by Prof. Tadeusz Estreicher in the Transactions of the Cracow Academy of Sciences for that year.[5][6] At the time, when no Polish state existed for about a century, Prof. Estreicher points out that this globe indicating recent geographical discoveries, throws special light on the interest taken by Polish scholars of that time and in particular Jan Brożek(1585-1652),[7] who listed this globe among his belongings in the inventory of his goods.[8]

Globus Jagellonicus. Tadeusz Estreicher delineavit. Illustration No. 3 published in Tadeusz Estreicher, Globus Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej z początku wieku XVI, w Krakowie, Nakładem Akademii Umięjetności, 1900.

Until the discovery of the da Vinci Globe in 2012, the gilded copper globe was considered the earliest existing globe to indicate any part of the New World and the first to delineate the South American continent. It was also believed to be the oldest globe on which the continent of America is shown to be distinct from that of Asia. It uses the name "America" as part of a Latin phrase “AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA”.[9] It uses the name "America", which had been introduced in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller in his Universalis Cosmographia, though for a continent located to the south of India.[10] A replica of the globe is on display in the Polish Nationality Room at the University of Pittsburgh[11]

Robert J. King has pointed out that America was shown on the Jagiellonian Globe in two locations: in the Atlantic Ocean under the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL; and in the Indian Ocean under the name AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA (America newly discovered). The phrase, „america noviter reperta” was used for the first time on a copper engraved map dating from c. 1507 and attributed to D.N. Germanus.[12] It was subsequently printed in the woodcut booklet, Globus Mundi: Declaratio sive descriptio mundi et totius orbis terrarum, published in Strasbourg by J. Grüninger in 1509.[13]

Drawing on the work of George E. Nunn, Robert J. King presented the hypothesis that the bilocation of America in the eastern and western hemispheres resulted from the two different scales of longitude employed. The oldest one used by Claudius Ptolemy who allowed 180 degrees between the westernmost point of Europe, Cape St. Vincent in Portugal and Cattigara on the easternmost point of Asia. The younger one applied by Christopher Columbus, who allowed 225 degrees for the same distance. According to the Columban calculation, therefore, the New World/America was closer to Europe, its most western part no more than 135 degrees west of Portugal, while according to the Ptolemaic calculation, it was further west, to the South of India, as seen on the Jagiellonian Globe.

Robert J. King described this explanation as a solution to the problem of representing the known world so that both the Ptolemaic and the Columbian ideas could be represented similar to that devised by Martin Waldseemüller for his world map of 1507, as described by Nunn.[14] Acceptance of the Columbus claims to have reached the Indies (Eastern Asia) involved a rejection of Ptolemy's degree value and longitudes. As a result, there was a conflict between the Columbian and the Ptolemaic schools of geography. It was impossible satisfactorily to indicate that Columbus had reached eastern Asia if the cartographer retained the Ptolemy longitudes and attempted to represent the entire 360 degrees of the earth's circumference.[15] Waldseemüller’s map was a reconciliation of the Columbian longitudes with the Ptolemy longitudes as shown on the globe of Martin Behaim. On the right-hand side of his world map Waldseemüller indicated the Ptolemy/Behaim conception included within 270 degrees of longitude from the meridian of the Canary Islands to the east, including the island of Zipango. The Waldseemüller map thus represents on its right hand side the Behaim conception of the earth as far as longitude 270ºE and terminates in the east with an open sea.[16] The ocean East of Asia is named the Occeanus Orientalis Indicus.

According to Robert J. King the above bilocation is applied likewise, on the Jagiellonian Globe as the different scales of longitude running eastward and westward result in a bilocation of America in the eastern and western hemispheres.


Recent research by Prof. St. Missinne offered evidence that there is a reason for the use of AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA on a large uninhabited island in the Southern Indian Ocean. This is based on the fact that the horologist who constructed the Jagiellonian Armillary Sphere used the Lenox as a template for his scale reduced terrestrial globe.[17]

It is not uncommon in case of new discoveries that there exited a certain uncertainty, even confusion. Therefore, it seems likely that the French horologist seems to have been confused about the precise location in the antipodal region of the newly discovered world. As a result, he engraved “AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA” in the wrong place, namely on a large, unnamed cartographic island in the Indian Ocean which was nameless on the Lenox Globe. This island has a mountain range which is aligned for much of its length along a meridian. Several rivers flow to the East from this mountain range into the unnamed Indian Ocean. It cannot be excluded that the horologist Jean Coudray may have had access to the Cosmographiae Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller. But there is no evidence for such a substantiation be it cartographic, bibliographical, orthographic or toponymic.

Since the name “America” is missing from da Vinci and the Lenox Globe, although there are already three toponyms on the Latin American Landmass of the Lenox, the French clockmaker may have chosen a left-over empty space that is even more western for him.

Due to the lack of space on the small globe this large unknown, anonymous and “empty” island seems to have come in handy for him during the continuous mental production work he updated and added the phrase in Latin “recently discovered America”. Jean Coudray was aware of the naming of America but not about its precise cartographic location, which was not available in the contemporary source, the printed woodcut of the “Globus Mundi”: Declaratio sive descriptio mundi et totius orbis” by Johannes Adelphus dating from 1509.

On a Ptolemaic land bridge between Africa and Asia, printed on a world map of Gregor Reisch in the Woodcut publication dating from 1503 in Basel with the title Margaretha Filosophica it states in Latin translated here into English: “Here is not land but sea, in which there are islands of remarkable size unknown to Ptolemy.” The specific location of this phrase and its content “islands of remarkable size” are in the South Indian Ocean, where the horologist put “AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA”.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Missinne, S. (2021) America’s Name Baptized on a Globe in 1510. Leonardo da Vinci’s Blueprint for the Jagiellonian Armillary Sphere Discovered. Advances in Historical Studies, 10, 93-133.
  2. ^ Missinne, Stefaan (2018). The Da Vinci Globe. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  3. ^ Missinne, S. (2015) America’s Birth Certificate: The Oldest Globular World Map: c. 1507. Advances in Historical Studies, 4, 239-307.
  4. ^ The originals of greatest interest are: the earliest engraved map of the world, 1508, the original Hunt–Lenox Globe, about 1510, supposed to be the earliest Post-Columbian globe which is extant, unless rivalled by the lately discovered Globus Jagellonicus; Publishers Weekly, Philadelphia, 1873 [1]
  5. ^ Tadeusz Estreicher, Globus Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej z początku wieku XVI, w Krakowie, Nakładem Akademii Umięjetności, 1900, 18 pp; a resumé, "Ein Erdglobus aus dem Anfange des XVI. Jahrhunderts in der Jagellonischen Bibliothek", was published in the Bulletin international de l'Académie des Sciences de Cracovie/ Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Krakau, No.2, February 1900, pp. 96–105. Estreicher prepared a manuscript English translation in March 1900: A globe of the beginning of the 16th century in the Jagellon Library, Extract from the Official Report of the Cracow Academy of Sciences, Globus Biblioteki Jagiellonskiej z początku w. XVI, No.12, January 1900, National Library of Australia MS 760/12/199; published as "Tadeusz Estreicher and the Jagiellonian Globe", The Globe (Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Map Society) no.75, 2014, pp. 16–28. [2] Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine [3] See also Tadeusz Estreicher, « Globus Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej z początku wieku XVI, a trzema figurami », Rozprawy Akademii Umiejętności: Wydział Filologiczny, w Krakowie, Nakładem Akademii, vol.32, 1901, pp. 1–18. [4]
  6. ^ Edward Henry Lewinski Corwin, The Political History of Poland, 1917, [5] Protestant Reformation and the Golden Age in Poland
  7. ^ Jan Brożek
  8. ^ Missinne, S. (2021) America’s Name Baptized on a Globe in 1510. Leonardo da Vinci’s Blueprint for the Jagiellonian Armillary Sphere Discovered. Advances in Historical Studies, 10, 93-133.
  9. ^ Missinne, S. (2021), pp. 93-133.
  10. ^ The name America was not universally accepted. Waldseemueller removed the name "America" from his map called Universalis Cosmographia substituting "terra incognita" (unknown land) for both continents. But printers reinserted it after his death.[6]
  11. ^ Sigmund H. Uminski, Poland Discovers America, 1972
  12. ^ Missinne, S. (2015) America’s Birth Certificate: The Oldest Globular World Map: c. 1507. Advances in Historical Studies, 4, 239-307.
  13. ^ The relevant passage (cap.iv) says: "And so, we come to say something of the Earth, which by some of the learned is compared to the human body, in which everything that is in our bodies is to be found: first, its flesh is the land, its blood the water, its bones the stones, its veins the mountains, its head the Orient or Asia; its feet the Occident and the newly discovered America, the fourth part of the Earth. Africa is its right arm, and our land of Europe forms its left arm"; Martin Lehmann (ed.), Der Globus mundi Martin Waldseemüllers aus dem Jahre 1509: Text, Übersetzung, Kommentar, Berlin, Freiburg im Breisgau, Rombach Verlag, 2016. See also Missinne, S.Italic text (2021) America’s Name Baptized on a Globe in 1510. Leonardo da Vinci’s Blueprint for the Jagiellonian Armillary Sphere Discovered. Advances in Historical Studies, 10, 93-133.
  14. ^ George E. Nunn, The World Map of Francesco Roselli, Philadelphia, Beans, 1928, pp. 8–9.
  15. ^ George E. Nunn, The Origin of the Strait of Anian Concept, Philadelphia, Beans, 1929, pp. 4–6.
  16. ^ Joseph Fischer and F. R. von Wieser: The Oldest Map with the name America of the year 1507 and the Carta Marina of the year 1516; cited in George E. Nunn, The World Map of Francesco Roselli, Philadelphia, Beans, 1928, pp. 8–9.
  17. ^ Missinne, S. (2021) America’s Name Baptized on a Globe in 1510. Leonardo da Vinci’s Blueprint for the Jagiellonian Armillary Sphere Discovered. Advances in Historical Studies, 10, 93-133.
  18. ^ Ibid.