Greater Johnstown School District

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Greater Johnstown School District
Map of Cambria County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Address
1091 Broad Street
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, Cambria County 15906-2437
United States of America
Information
Type Public
Closed Chandler ES 1992, Cypress ES (1994), Roxbury ES (1997),
School board 9 locally elected members
Superintendent
  • Dr James F Cekada (contract July 2015 to June 30, 2020)[1]
  • Gerald Zahorchak, former Superintendent, retired June 2015 salary $149,485 (2013)
  • Barbara Parkins, former superintendent April 2003 – June 2012[2]
Administrator

Mr John M Zahorchak, business manager

Dr James Cekada, Asst Superintendent
Principal Frank Frontino, ESES
Principal Douglas T Henry, MS
Principal Justin Zahorchak, WSES
Principal Michael Vuckovich, SHS
Staff 130 non teaching staff members (2012)
Faculty 228 teachers (2012)
Grades preschool-12
Age 4 years old to 21 years old special education
Pupils

3,103 pupils (2014)[5]
3,118 pupils (2012)[6]
3,047 pupils (2010)[7]

3,239 pupils (2005)
 • Kindergarten 262 (2013),[8] 263 (2010)
 • Grade 1 272 (2013), 256
 • Grade 2 209 (2013), 270
 • Grade 3 243 (2013), 227
 • Grade 4 250 (2013), 244
 • Grade 5 246 (2013), 225
 • Grade 6 213 (2013), 215
 • Grade 7 205 (2013), 210
 • Grade 8 219 (2013), 205
 • Grade 9 229 (2013), 262
 • Grade 10 199 (2013), 265
 • Grade 11 184 (2013), 155
 • Grade 12 201 (2013), 250 (2010)
 • Other 171 pupils
Language English
Color(s) Black and Columbia Blue
Team name Trojans
Budget

$45.9 million (2015-16)[3]

$27.5 million (2009-10)[4]
Per-pupil spending $11,330 (2008)
Per-pupil spending $14,740.16 (2013)
Website

The Greater Johnstown School District is the a public school district in Cambria County, Pennsylvania. The district serves: the City of Johnstown, the Boroughs of Daisytown and East Conemaugh, and the townships of Lower Yoder, Stonycreek, and West Taylor. Greater Johnstown School District encompasses approximately 29 square miles (75 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, it served a resident population of 33,566. By 2010, the district's population declined to 27,641 people.[9] The educational attainment levels for the School District population (25 years old and over) were 85.4% high school graduates and 13.2% college graduates.[10] The district is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania.

According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 79.7% of the district’s pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty Level[11] as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012.[12] In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $14,222, while the median family income was $30,347.[13] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501[14] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[15] In Cambria County, the median household income was $39,574.[16] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[17]

According to Greater Johnstown School District officials, the district provided basic educational services to 3,212 pupils in 2009. It employed: 232 teachers, 99 full-time and part-time support personnel, and nineteen (19) administrators during the 2009-10 school year. The district received $23 million in state funding in the 2009-10 school year. In school year 2007-08, the Greater Johnstown School District reported having 3,193 pupils. It employed: 244 teachers, 99 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 12 administrators. Greater Johnstown School District received more than $23.3 million in state funding in school year 2007-08.

High school students may choose to attend Greater Johnstown Career and Technology Center for training in the construction and mechanical trades; culinary arts, allied health careers, cosmetology, and graphic design. The Appalachia Intermediate Unit IU8 provides the district with a wide variety of services like specialized education for disabled students and hearing, background checks for employees, state mandated recognizing and reporting child abuse training, speech and visual disability services and professional development for staff and faculty.

Schools[edit]

The district operates five schools.

  • East Side Elementary School - located in the Hornerstown Section of the city limits of Johnstown. The East Side School was built in 1969, renovated in 1977, and renovated again in 1996 to close in "open classrooms"
  • West Side Elementary School - Originally constructed as the Westwood School in 1959, the West Side Elementary School was renovated in 1991. It is located in Lower Yoder Township.
  • Greater Johnstown Middle School - located in the west end of the city limits of Johnstown
  • Greater Johnstown High School - located in the Moxham section of Johnstown. The school has been recently renovated.
  • Greater Johnstown School District's Cyber Academy opened July 2014

Opportunity Scholarship lowest achieving schools[edit]

In 2012, West Side Elementary School and Greater Johnstown Middle School were both among the 15% lowest achieving schools in the Commonwealth. Parents and students may be eligible for scholarships to transfer to another public or nonpublic school through the state's Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit Program passed in June 2012.[18] The scholarships are limited to those students whose family's income is less than $60,000 annually, with another $12,000 allowed per dependent. Maximum scholarship award is $8,500, with special education students receiving up to $15,000 for a year's tuition. Parents pay any difference between the scholarship amount and the receiving school's tuition rate. Students may seek admission to neighboring public school districts. Each year the PDE publishes the tuition rate for each individual public school district.[19] Fifty-three public schools in Allegheny County are among the lowest-achieving schools in 2011. According to the report, parents in 414 public schools (74 school districts) were offered access to these scholarships. For the 2012-13 school year, nine public school districts in Pennsylvania had all of their schools placed on the list including: Steelton-Highspire School District, Sto-Rox School District, Chester Upland School District, Clairton City School District, Duquesne City School District, Farrell Area School District, Wilkinsburg Borough School District, and William Penn School District.[20] In 2014, Monessen City School District had all three of its schools added to the list. Funding for the scholarships comes from donations by businesses which receive a state tax credit for donating.

In 2013, three of the district's schools were on the list: West Side Elementary School, Greater Johnstown Middle School and Greater Johnstown High School.[21] All three schools remained on the lowest achievement list in 2015.[22] For the 2015-16 school year all four schools in the Greater Johnstown School District are on the state's low achievement schools list.[23]

State funding lawsuit[edit]

In 2014, Greater Johnstown School District joined several other Pennsylvania public school districts in suing the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania regarding school funding.[24] In 2015, the lawsuit was dismissed by the Commonwealth Court writing, "This is a legislative policy determination that has been solely committed to the General Assembly under Article 3, Section 14."[25] In May 2015, the district appealed the decision to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.[26]

Governance[edit]

The Greater Johnstown School District is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve without compensation for a term of four years), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[27] The federal government controls programs it funds like: Title I funding for low income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandates the district focus resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills. The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regarding renewal of the employment contract.[28]

The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives Sunshine Review gave the school board and district administration a "F" for transparency based on a review of "What information can people find on their school district's website". It examined the school district's website for information regarding; taxes, the current budget, meetings, school board members names and terms, contracts, audits, public records information and more.[29]

Academic achievement[edit]

In 2015, Greater Johnstown School District ranked 477th out of 493 Pennsylvania public school districts, by the Pittsburgh Business Times.[30] The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[31] Three school districts were excluded because they do not operate high schools (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades.

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2012, Greater Johnstown School District declined to Warning Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[36] In 2011, Greater Johnstown School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[37][38]

  • 2008-2010 - achieved AYP status
  • 2007 - Making Progress School Improvement status level 2[39]
  • 2006 - declined to School Improvement status level 2 due to chronic low student achievement
  • 2005 - Making Progress School Improvement status level 1
  • 2004 - declined to School Improvement status level 1, due to low student achievement
  • 2003 - Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement.[40]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2014, the district’s graduation rate was 83%.[41]

  • 2013 - 82.4%[42]
  • 2012 - 87%.[43]
  • 2011 - 84.9%.[44]
  • 2010 - 83.7%, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate.[45]
According to traditional graduation rate calculations

High School[edit]

Greater Johnstown High School is located at 222 Central Avenue, Johnstown. In 2014, enrollment was reported as 813 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 77% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 20.9% of pupils received special education services, while 2.3% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 77 teachers.[49] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 3% of the teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The high school is on the state's lowest achievement schools list permitting students to get scholarships to attend other schools.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, Greater Johnstown High School reported an enrollment of 849 pupils in grades 9th through 12th, with 624 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. In 2012, the school employed 70 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 12:1.[50] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 13 teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[51]

2014 School Performance Profile

Greater Johnstown High School achieved 54.7 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 55.8% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 41% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, 17.9% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[52][53] Statewide, the percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in Algebra I increased to 39.7% to 40.1%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in reading/literature declined to 52.5%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in biology improved from 39.7% to 41.4%.[54]

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,134 of 2,947 Pennsylvania public schools (72 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.[55] Fifty-three percent of schools statewide received lower SPP scores compared with last year's, while 46 percent improved. A handful were unchanged.[56][57]

Compared with last year, the percentage of schools that earned below 60 declined by nearly 1 percent per Secretary of Education Carolyn Dumaresq. She reported that this is an indication that student achievement is improving as school resources are being used better.[58]

2013 School Performance Profile

Greater Johnstown High School achieved 62.4 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 66% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, only 50% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, 38.8% showed on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[59] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. Pennsylvania 11th grade students no longer take the PSSAs. Instead, beginning in 2012, they take the Keystone Exams at the end of the associated course.[60]

AYP History[edit]

Effective with Spring 2013, the Pennsylvania Department of Education discontinued administering the PSSA's to 11th graders.

In 2012, Greater Johnstown High School declined further to School Improvement I Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status, due to low academic achievement in reading and mathematics.[61] Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, the school administration was required to notify parents of the school's poor achievement outcomes. Additionally, the school administration was required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, to develop another School Improvement Plan to address the school's low student achievement. Under the Pennsylvania Accountability System, the school district must pay for additional tutoring for struggling students.[62] The High School is eligible for special, extra funding under School Improvement Grants which the school must apply for each year.[63]

  • 2011 - declined to Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement.[64]
  • 2008-2010 - achieved AYP status each school year
  • 2007 - Making Progress School Improvement I[65]
  • 2006 - declined to School Improvement I due to low student achievement
  • 2005 - declined to Warning AYP status
  • 2004 - achieved AYP status
  • 2003 - Warning AYP status

Greater Johnstown High School has been eligible for special, extra funding under School Improvement Grants which the school must apply for each year.[66]

PSSA results

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012, in all Pennsylvania public high schools. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam included content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies. The mathematics exam included: algebra I, algebra II, geometry and trigonometry. The standards were first published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[67]

In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade year.[68]

11th Grade Reading:

  • 2012 - 68% on grade level (13% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[69]
  • 2011 - 70% (10% below basic). State - 69.1%[70]
  • 2010 - 66% (18% below basic). State - 66%[71]
  • 2009 - 63% (16% below basic). State - 65%[72]
  • 2008 - 69% (16% below basic). State - 65%[73]

11th Grade Math:

  • 2012 - 59% on grade level (17% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[74]
  • 2011 - 58% (18% below basic). State - 60.3%[75]
  • 2010 - 55% (29% below basic). State - 59%[76]
  • 2009 - 62% (14% below basic). State - 56%[77]
  • 2008 - 67% (15% below basic). State - 56%[78]

11th Grade Science:

  • 2012 - 22% on grade level (25% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[79]
  • 2011 - 18% (15% below basic). State - 40%[80]
  • 2010 - 21% (29% below basic). State - 39%
  • 2009 - 30% (22% below basic). State - 40%[81]
  • 2008 - 15% (33% below basic). State - 39%[82]
  • 2007 - students field tested. Results withheld from the public by PDE.

College Remediation Rate[edit]

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 17% of the Greater Johnstown High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[83][84] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[85][86] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

Dual enrollment[edit]

The Greater Johnstown High School offers a dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school. The courses count towards high school graduation requirements and towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offered a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books.[87] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[88] Under state rules, other students that reside in the district, who attend a private school, a charter school or are home schooled are eligible to participate in this program.[89] For 2009-10 school year, the High School received $7,996.[90] In 2010, Governor Edward Rendell eliminated the grants to students, from the Commonwealth, due to a state budget crisis.

Graduation requirements[edit]

Among Pennsylvania's 500 public school districts, graduation requirements widely vary. The Greater Johnstown School Board has determined that a pupil must earn 26 credits to graduate, including: a required class every year in math, English, and social studies, science 3 credits, Health & Wellness 1 credit, Strategic Reading / Composition & Writing 1 credit, Intro to Engineering & Business Technology Communication Skills 1 credit, Physical Education and 8 electives which must include a Personal Finance course.[91]

For nearly two decades, all Pennsylvania secondary school students were required to complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[92] Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania State Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[93]

By Pennsylvania State School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2017, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the respective Keystone Exams for each course.[94] The exam is given at the end of the course. Keystone Exams replace the PSSAs for 11th grade.[95]

Students have several opportunities to pass the exam. Schools are mandated to provide targeted assistance to help the student be successful. Those who do not pass after several attempts can perform a project in order to graduate.[96][97] For the class of 2019, a Composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[98] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 38% on grade level, Biology 35% on grade level and English Lit - 49% on grade level.[99] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2014, 75 Greater Johnstown School District students took the SAT exams. The district's Verbal Average Score was 438. The Math average score was 449. The Writing average score was 412.[100][101] Statewide in Pennsylvania, Verbal Average Score was 497. The Math average score was 504. The Writing average score was 480. The College Board also reported that nationwide scores were: 497 in reading, 513 in math and 487 in writing.[102] In 2014, 1,672,395 students took the SATs in the United States.

In 2013, 101 Greater Johnstown School District students took the SAT exams. The district's Verbal Average Score was 430. The Math average score was 429. The Writing average score was 399. The College Board reported that statewide scores were: 494 in reading, 504 in math and 482 in writing. The nationwide SAT results were the same as in 2012.[103]

In 2012, 94 Greater Johnstown School District students took the SAT exams. The district's Verbal Average Score was 418. The Math average score was 426. The Writing average score was 401. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 99 Greater Johnstown School District students took the SAT exams. The district's Verbal Average Score was 427. The Math average score was 432. The Writing average score was 389.[104] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479.[105] In the United States, 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[106]

The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a research arm of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, compared the SAT data of students in rural areas of Pennsylvania to students in urban areas. From 2003 to 2005, the average total SAT score for students in rural Pennsylvania was 992, while urban students averaged 1,006. During the same period, 28 percent of 11th and 12th graders in rural school districts took the exam, compared to 32 percent of urban students in the same grades. The average math and verbal scores were 495 and 497, respectively, for rural students, while urban test-takers averaged 499 and 507, respectively. Pennsylvania’s SAT composite score ranked low on the national scale in 2004. The composite SAT score of 1,003 left Pennsylvania ranking 44 out of the 50 states and Washington, DC.[107]

The Pennsylvania Department of Education reported that 71 percent of students in rural areas of Pennsylvania chose to continue their education after high school in 2003, whereas 79 percent of urban high school graduates opted to continue their education.

AP Courses[edit]

In 2014, Greater Johnstown High School offered 1 Advanced Placement (AP) courses at a higher cost than regular courses. The fee for each AP Exam is $91 (2014).[108] The school normally retains $9 of that fee as a rebate to help with administrative costs. In 2012, the fee was $89 per test per pupil. Students have the option of taking College Board approved courses and then taking the College Board's examination in the Spring. Students, who achieve a 3 or better on the exam, may be awarded college credits at US universities and colleges. Each higher education institution sets its own standards about what level of credits are awarded to a student based on their AP exam score. Most higher education give credits for scores of 4 or 5. Some schools also give credits for scores of 3. High schools give credits towards graduation to students who take the school's AP class. At Greater Johnstown High School 5% of students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam.[109]

Middle school[edit]

Greater Johnstown Middle School is located at 280 Decker Avenue, Johnstown. In 2014, enrollment was 637 pupils, in grades 6th through 8th, with 81% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 20% of pupils received special education services, while 2.3% of pupils were identified as gifted.[110] According to a 2014 report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1% of its teachers were rated "Non-Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[111] Greater Johnstown Middle School has been on the state's lowest academic achieving schools list since 2011.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, the Greater Johnstown Middle School reported an enrollment of 651 pupils, in grades 6th through 8th, with 528 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 54 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 12:1.[112] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[113]

2014 School Performance Profile

Greater Johnstown Middle School achieved 49.1 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature -43% were on grade level. In Algebra 1/Math, 42.8% showed on grade level mathematics skills. In Science, 27.8% of 8th graders showed on grade level science understanding. In writing, 35.7% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[114]

2013 School Performance Profile

Greater Johnstown Middle School achieved 52.1 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, writing, mathematics and science achievement. In reading, just 50.7% of the students were on grade level. In Mathematics/Algebra 1, 49.9% of the students showed on grade level skills. In Science, only 33.8% of the 8th graders demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 36.9% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[115] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.

AYP History

In 2012, Greater Johnstown Middle School declined further to Corrective Action II 1st Year AYP status, due to missing 8 out of 10 academic metrics measured.[116] Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, the school administration was required to notify parents of the school's poor achievement outcomes and to offer the parent the opportunity to transfer to a successful school within the district. Additionally, Greater Johnstown Middle School Administration was required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, to develop a School Improvement Plan to address the school's chronic, low student achievement. Under the Pennsylvania Accountability System, the school district must pay for additional tutoring for struggling students.[117] The Greater Johnstown Middle School is eligible for special, extra funding under School Improvement Grants which the school must apply for each year.[118]

  • 2011 - Making Progress: in Corrective Action I status due to chronic low student achievement.[119]
  • 2010 - declined further to Corrective Action Level 1 AYP status[120]
  • 2009 - declined further to School Improvement Level 2 AYP status[121]
  • 2008 - achieved AYP status[122]
  • 2007 - Making Progress School Improvement level 1[123]
  • 2006 - declined to School Improvement Level I[124]
  • 2005 - decline to Warning
  • 2004 - achieved AYP status
  • 2003 - Warning AYP status due to lagging student academic achievement in reading and mathematics

8th Grade Science:

  • 2012 - 27% on grade level (53% below basic). State - 59%[136]
  • 2011 - 27% (54% below basic). State - 58.3%
  • 2010 - 35% (46% below basic). State - 57%[137]
  • 2009 - 30% (38% below basic). State - 55%[138]
  • 2008 - 25%, (43% below basic). State - 52%[139]
  • 2007 - tested, but results not made public.

West Side Elementary School[edit]

West Side Elementary School is located at 196 Westgate Drive, Johnstown. In 2014, West Side Elementary School enrollment was 894 pupils in grades kindergarten through 5th, with 83.6% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 13.6% of the pupils receive special education services, while less than 1% of pupils are identified as gifted.[140] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full-day kindergarten since 2003.[141] The school also provides taxpayer-funded preschool to 4 year olds. The school is a federally designated Title I school. West Side Elementary School has been on the state's lowest achieving school list since its inception in 2011.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, enrollment was 856 pupils in grades preschool through 5th, with 713 pupils receiving a free or reduced price lunch. The school employed 56 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 15:1.[142] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[143] The school provided full-day kindergarten to all its pupils.[144]

2014 School Performance Profile

West Side Elementary School achieved a score of 50.6 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013-14, only 38.5% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, just 44% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, only 39.7% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, just 56% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 29% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[145]

2013 School Performance Profile

West Side Elementary School achieved a score of 52 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012-13, only 44.6% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, 59.5% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 48% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, just 58.9% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 25.7% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[146] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.

AYP status history

In 2012, West Side Elementary School declined to Warning Adequate Yearly progress (AYP) status, due to missing all 10 academic metrics measured.[147] In 2011, West Side Elementary School achieved AYP status.[148]

  • 2010 - declined again to Warning AYP status, due to lagging student academic achievement in reading and mathematics[149]
  • 2009 - achieved AYP status[150]
  • 2008 - Making Progress School Improvement Level I[151]
  • 2007 - declined to School Improvement Level I AYP status due to chronic low student achievement[152] West Side Elementary School Administration was required by the state to notify parents of the poor academic achievement and to develop a plan to raise student achievement.
  • 2006 - declined to Warning AYP status, due to lagging student academic achievement in reading and mathematics
  • 2005 - achieved AYP status
  • 2004 - achieved AYP status
  • 2003 - achieved AYP status

West Side Elementary School has provided full-day kindergarten for more than a decade.[153] and preschool.[154] Proponents of full-day kindergarten claim it will reduce special education numbers and it will raise primary student academic achievement especially in reading and math.[155] Those outcomes have not been realized in the West Side Elementary School. Reading achievement in particular has not improved.[156]

PSSA History

Each year, in the Spring, the 3rd graders take the PSSAs in math and reading. The fourth grade is tested in reading, math and science. The fifth grade is evaluated in reading, mathematics and writing. Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered beginning 2003 to all Pennsylvania public school students in grades 3rd-8th.[157] The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014.[158][159][160] The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam is given to 4th grades and includes content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies.[161]

4th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 50%, (15% below basic). State - 82%
  • 2011 - 60%, (15% below basic). State - 82.9%
  • 2010 - 48%, (31% below basic). State - 81%
  • 2009 - 59%, (9% below basic). State - 83%
  • 2008 - 61%, (9% below basic). State - 81%

East Side Elementary School[edit]

East Side Elementary School is located at 220 Messenger Street, Johnstown. In 2014, the East Side Elementary School's enrollment was 759 pupils in grades preschool through 5th, with 86% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 13.7% of the pupils receive special education services, while 1% are identified as gifted.[169] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full-day kindergarten.[170] The school is a federally designated Title I school. In 2015, East Side Elementary School was listed on the state's lowest achievement schools list.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, East Side Elementary School enrollment was 762 pupils in grades preschool through 5th, with 653 pupils receiving a free or reduced price lunch. The school employed 48 teachers, yielding a student-teacher ratio of 15:1.[171] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[172] The school provided full-day kindergarten to all its pupils.[173]

2014 School Performance Profile

East Side Elementary School achieved a score of 55.2 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013-14, only 43% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, 47.9% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, just 51% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, just 60% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 44.9% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[174]

2013 School Performance Profile

East Side Elementary School achieved a score of 56.6 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012-13, only 52.7% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, 62% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 67% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, just 61% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 38% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[175]

AYP status history

In 2012, East Side Elementary School declined to Warning Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[176] In 2011, East Side Elementary School achieved AYP status.[177]

  • 2010 - Making Progress - School Improvement 1 AYP status[178]
  • 2009 - declined to School Improvement Level 1 AYP status due to chronic, low academic achievement in reading and mathematics.[179]
  • 2008 - declined again to Warning AYP status, due to lagging student achievement[180]
  • 2007 - achieved AYP status[181]
  • 2006 - declined to Warning AYP status[182]
  • 2005 - achieved AYP status[183]
  • 2004 - achieved AYP status
  • 2003 - achieved AYP status
PSSA History
4th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 74%, (7% below basic). State - 82%
  • 2011 - 81%, (5% below basic). State - 82.9%
  • 2010 - 69%, (8% below basic). State - 81%
  • 2009 - 65%, (7% below basic). State - 83%
  • 2008 - 74%, (5% below basic). State - 81%

Special education[edit]

In December 2014, the district administration reported that 17% of the district's pupils received Special Education services.[191] In 2012, the district administration reported that 18.7% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 33% have learning disabilities.[192] In 2009, Greater Johnstown School District administration reported that 17.9% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 39% have learning disabilities.[193]

Special education services in the Commonwealth are provided to students from ages three years to 21 years old. In the 2010-2011 school year, the total student enrollment was more than 1.78 million students with approximately 275,000 students eligible for special education services. Among these students 18,959 were identified with mental retardation and 21,245 students with autism.[194] The largest group of students are identified as Specific Learning Disabilities 126,026 students (46.9 percent) and Speech or Language Impairments with 43,542 students (16.2 percent).

In 2007, Pennsylvania Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak testified before the Pennsylvania House Education Committee regarding full-day kindergarten. He claimed that districts which offered the program would see a significant decrease in special education students due to early identification and early intervention. He asserted the high cost of full-day kindergarten would be recouped by Districts in lower special education costs.[195] Greater Johnstown School District has seen no decline in the percentage of special education students it serves, yielding no savings.

In order to comply with state and federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act rules and regulations, the school district engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress.[196][197] In an effort to identify students who may be eligible for special education services, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Special Education administration. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the district seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the district or contact the district's Special Education Department.[198][199] The IDEA 2004 requires each school entity to publish a notice to parents, in newspapers or other media, including the student handbook and website regarding the availability of screening and intervention services and how to access them.

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. This funding was in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[200] The Special Education funding structure is through the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds and state appropriations. IDEA funds are appropriated to the state on an annual basis and distributed through intermediate units (IUs) to school districts, while state funds are distributed directly to the districts. Total funds that are received by school districts are calculated through a formula. The Pennsylvania Department of Education oversees four appropriations used to fund students with special needs: Special Education; Approved Private Schools; Pennsylvania Chartered Schools for the Deaf and Blind; and Early Intervention. The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[201] Over identification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[202] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[203] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive requiring schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[204]

Greater Johnstown School District received a $2,220,524 supplement for special education services in 2010.[205] For the 2011-12, 2012–13 and 2013-14 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010-11. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[206][207] For the 2014-2015 school year, Greater johnstown School District received an increase to $2,272,568 from the Commonwealth for special education funding.[208] Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The district must apply for this added funding.

In 2013, the state's Special Education Funding Reform Commission provided a report on the state of funding for special education in the Commonwealth.[209] Funding for special education programs is borne largely on a local basis at 60%, with the state contributing $1 billion or 30% and the federal government providing 10% of the funding.

Least Restrictive Monitoring[edit]

In 2006, Greater Johnstown School District was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Education for Least Restrictive Environment monitoring. Twenty school districts were tentatively identified for Tier 1 monitoring. Greater Johnstown School District received an alert letter from the PDE - Bureau of Special Education.[210] School districts were placed in one of three categories: Tier 1, Tier 2 or Tier 3. The district was placed in Tier 1 due to a high number of students being identified for special education services. Plus students were spending more than 60% of the school day, outside of regular education. The monitoring is a product of the PDE addressing its voluntary settlement in Gaskin V. Pennsylvania which ordered that special education students spend most of their school day (80%) in regular education classrooms with supplementary aids and services to assist funded by the taxpayers.[211][212][213]

Gifted education[edit]

The District Administration reported that 65 or 2% of its students were gifted in 2009. The highest percentage of gifted students reported among all 500 school districts and 100 public charter schools in Pennsylvania was North Allegheny School District with 15.5% of its students identified as gifted.[214] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[215][216]

Wellness policy[edit]

Greater Johnstown School Board established a district wellness policy[217] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 – 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006." Most districts identified the superintendent and school foodservice director as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation.[218]

The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education, physical activity, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[219] The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Greater Johnstown School District offers both a free school breakfast and a free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the school can eat breakfast and lunch. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level are provided a breakfast and lunch at no cost to the family. Children from families with incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the federal poverty level can be charged no more than 30 cents per breakfast. A foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of the State or who is placed by a court with a caretaker household is eligible for both a free breakfast and a free lunch. Runaway, homeless and Migrant Youth are also automatically eligible for free meals.[220] The meals are partially funded with federal dollars through the United States Department of Agriculture.[221]

In 2013, the USDA issued new restrictions to foods in public schools. The rules apply to foods and beverages sold on all public school district campuses during the day. They limit vending machine snacks to a maximum of 200 calories per item. Additionally, all snack foods sold at school must meet competitive nutrient standards, meaning they must have fruits, vegetables, dairy or protein in them or contain at least 10 percent of the daily value of fiber, calcium, potassium, and Vitamin D.[222] In order to comply with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 all US public school districts are required to raise the price of their school lunches to $2.60 regardless of the actual cost of providing the lunch.[223] The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 mandates that Districts raise their full pay lunch prices every year until the price of non-subsidized lunches equals the amount the federal government reimburses schools for free meals. That subsidy in 2013-2014 was $2.93.

In 2014, President Obama ordered a prohibition of advertisements for unhealthy foods on public school campuses during the school day.[224] The Food and Drug Administration requires that students take milk as their beverage at lunch. In accordance with this law, any student requesting water in place of milk with their lunch must present a written request, signed by a doctor, documenting the need for water instead of milk.[225][226]

Greater Johnstown School District provides health services as mandated by the Commonwealth and the federal government. Nurses are available in each building to conduct annual health screenings (data reported to the PDE and state Department of Health) and to dispense prescribed medications to students during the school day. Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health’s extensive immunization mandates. School nurses monitor each pupil for this compliance.[227][228] Nurses also monitor each child's weight.[229]

Health eTools program

The Greater Johnstown School District participated in Highmark Foundation’s Healthy High 5 Health eTools for Schools grant which enabled mobile data collection of pertinent health and physical fitness screening data on students K-12 in a database held by InnerLink, Inc. in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.[230] Health eTools for Schools also provided interdisciplinary research-based curriculum in nutrition, physical education and physical activity to participating districts. The program was discontinued in 2013.[231]

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[232]

In 2012, the average teacher salary in Greater Johnstown School District was $61,434 a year.[233] In 2013The District employed 311 teachers with an average salary of $61,967 and a top salary of $149,485.[234][235] Greater Johnstown School District teacher and administrator retirement benefits are equal to at least 2.00% x Final Average Salary x Total Credited Service. (Some teachers benefits utilize a 2.50% benefit factor.)[236] After 40 years of service, a teacher can retire with 100% of the average salary of their final 3 years of employment. According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector. The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security.[237]

In 2009, Greater Johnstown School District reported employing 259 teachers and administrators with a median salary of $58,865 and a top salary of $128,960.[238] The teacher’s work day is 7.5 hours, with 185 days in the contract year (5 for inservice days). Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, professional development reimbursement, 3 paid personal days (unused accrue as sick days), 10 paid sick days which accumulate), 3 paid bereavement leave days, sabbatical leave at 1/2 pay and full benefits and many other benefits.[239]

Building sale During the summer of 2015, the Greater Johnstown School Board sold the main administration building which is located on Broad Street to First Link of Pennsylvania LP. for $400,000.[240] The administration will be moved into one of three school buildings that have ample room to accommodate the offices. Supporters note the sale returns the property to the tax rolls of the district the city and the county.

Administrative spending Greater johnstown School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 was $569.05 per pupil. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[241] The Pennsylvania School Boards Association collects and maintains statistics on salaries of public school district employees in Pennsylvania. According to the association's report, the average salary for a superintendent, for the 2007-08 school year, was $122,165. Superintendents and administrators receive a benefit package commensurate with that offered to the district's teachers' union.[242] According to PSBA, the median Superintendent salary rose to over $130,000 in 2011.[243]

Per-pupil spending In 2008, the Greater Johnstown School District administration reported that per-pupil spending was $11,330 which ranked 361st among Pennsylvania's then 501 public school districts. In 2010, the district’s per-pupil spending had increased to $12,450.35.[244] In 2013, Greater Johnstown per-pupil spending was reported as $14,740.16.[245] In 2011, Pennsylvania’s per-pupil spending was $13,467, ranking 6th in the United States.[246] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[247]

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that Pennsylvania spent $8,191 per pupil in school year 2000-01.[248] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[249] Among the fifty states, Pennsylvania’s total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008-09.[250] Pennsylvania’s total revenue per pupil rose to $16,186 ranking 9th in the nation in 2011.[251]

Reserves In 2008, the Greater Johnstown School District reported a balance of $$11,858,778 in its unreserved-undesignated fund. The unreserved-designated fund balance was reported as zero. [252] In 2010, Greater Johnstown School District Administration reported an increase to 15,298,128 in the unreserved-undesignated fund balance. Pennsylvania public school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[253] In 2005, the total reserve funds held by Pennsylvania public school districts was $1.9 billion.[254] By 2013, reserves held by Pennsylvania public school districts, as a whole, had increased to over $3.8 billion.[255][256][257]

Interest swap In November 2009, Auditor General Jack Wagner reported that Greater Johnstown School District entered into high risk Interest swap deals under Act 23 of 2003.[258][259] By 2009, 107 Districts out of 500 Pennsylvania school districts entered into these transactions. Seven Berks County public school districts also entered into swap deals with investment banks. It was found that fees that were characterized as being paid by the investment banks were actually ultimately charged to the district.[260][261]

Tuition Students who live in the Greater Johnstown School District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Greater Johnstown School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the district's schools. The 2013 tuition rates are Elementary School - $7,799, High School - $11,881[262]

Greater Johnstown School District is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax 1%,[263] a property tax, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, a Business Privilege Tax, two per capita taxes, an annual Emergency and Municipal Services Tax, and a Mercantile Tax; coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and roughly $5 million from the federal government.[264] Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. Interest earnings on accounts also provide nontax income to the district. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the level of the individual’s personal wealth.[265] The average Pennsylvania public school teacher pension in 2011 exceeds $60,000 a year plus they receive federal Social Security benefits: both are free of Pennsylvania state income tax and local income tax which funds local public schools.[266]

State basic education funding[edit]

According to a report from Representative Todd Stephens office, Greater Johnstown School District receives 30.5% of its annual revenue from the state.[267] This exceeds the goal of the state providing 50% of district funding.[268]

For the 2014-15 school year, Greater Johnstown School District received $16,726,873 in State Basic Education funding. Additionally, the district received $266,353 in new Ready To Learn Block grant. The State’s enacted Education Budget includes $5,526,129,000 for the 2014-2015 Basic Education Funding.[269] The Education budget also includes Accountability Block Grant funding at $100 million and $241 million in new Ready to Learn funding for public schools that focus on student achievement and academic success. The State is paying $500.8 million to Social Security on the school employees behalf and another $1.16 billion to the state teachers pension system (PSERS). In total, Pennsylvania’s Education budget for K-12 public schools is $10 billion. This was a $305 million increase over 2013-2014 state spending and the greatest amount ever allotted by the Commonwealth for its public schools.[270]

In the 2013-2014 school year, Greater Johnstown School District received a 1.6% increase or $16,731,025 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $265,296 more than its 2012-13 state BEF to the district. Additionally, Greater Johnstown School District received $263,303 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Cambria County, Westmont Hilltop School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 2.5%. The district had the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[271] The highest percent of state spending per student is in the Chester-Upland district, where roughly 78 percent comes from state coffers. In Philadelphia, it is nearly 49 percent.[272] As a part of the education budget, the state provided the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[273]

For the 2012-13 school year, Greater Johnstown School District received $16,465,729.[274] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Greater Johnstown School District received $263,303 in ABG funding. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[275] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In the 2011-12 school year, Greater Johnstown School District received a $16,464,001 allocation, of state Basic Education Funding.[276][277] Additionally, the Greater Johnstown School District received $263,303 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget included $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount was a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011.[278] The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District of Allegheny County, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011-12.[279] In 2010, the district reported that 2,501 students received free or reduced price lunches, due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.[280] Some Pennsylvania public school districts experienced a reduction of total funding due to the termination of federal stimulus funding which ended in 2011.

In the 2010-11 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 6.53% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $18,189,291. Among the districts in Cambria County, the highest increase went to Westmont Hilltop School District which got a 10.14% increase. One hundred fifty Pennsylvania school districts received the base 2% increase. The highest increase in 2010-11 went to Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County, which received a 23.65% increase in state funding.[281] Fifteen (15) Pennsylvania public school districts received a BEF increase of greater than 10%. The state's hold harmless policy regarding state basic education funding continued where each district received at least the same amount as it received the prior school year, even when enrollment had significantly declined. The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward Rendell and then Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal given each February. This was the second year of Governor Rendell’s policy to fund some public school districts at a far greater rate than others.[282]

In the 2009-10 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 7.42% increase in Basic Education Funding to Greater Johnstown School District for a total of $17,073,715, with $2,022,944 coming from federal ARRA dollars. Among the districts in Cambria County, the highest increase went to Ferndale Area School District which got a 7.58%. Ninety (90) Pennsylvania public school districts received the base 2% increase. Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received a 22.31% increase in state basic education funding in 2009.[283] The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward G. Rendell and the Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal.[284]

The state Basic Education Funding to the district in 2008-09 was $15,893,868. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,246 district students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007–2008 school year.[285] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Pennsylvania spent $7,824 Per Pupil in the year 2000. This amount increased up to $12,085 by the year 2008.[286][287]

All Pennsylvania school districts also receive additional funding from the state through several funding allocations, including: Reimbursement of Charter School Expenditures; Special Education Funding; Secondary Career & Technical Education Subsidy; PA Accountability Grants; and low achieving schools were eligible for Educational Assistance Program Funding and in Greater Johnstown School District's case annual federal School Improvement grants. Plus all Pennsylvania school districts receive federal dollars for various programs including: Special Education funding and Title I funding for children from low income families. In 2010, Pennsylvania spent over $24 billion for public education - local, state and federal dollars combined.[288] By 2015, Pennsylvania is spending over $27 billion on public education (local, state and federal resources combined).[289]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided over $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher skills training; All Day Kindergarten; lower class size in Kindergarten through 3rd grade; literacy and math coaching programs (provides teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction); before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11, the district applied for and received $714,670 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The district used the funding to provide full-day kindergarten.[290][291] In 2009, 100% of the kindergarteners in Greater Johnstown School District attended full-day kindergarten.[292]

Ready to Learn grant[edit]

Beginning in the 2014-2015 budget, the State funded a new Ready to Learn Grant for public schools. A total of $100 million is allocated through a formula to districts based on the number of students, level of poverty of community as calculated by its market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) and the number of English language learners. Ready to Learn Block Grant funds may be used by the Districts for: school safety; Ready by 3 early childhood intervention programs; individualized learning programs; and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs.[293]

Greater Johnstown School District received $266,353 in Ready to Learn Grant dollars in addition to State Basic Education funding, Special Education funding, PreK Counts funding, reimbursement for Social Security payments for employees and other state grants which the district must apply to receive. 94,800

PreK Counts grant[edit]

Greater Johnstown School District received state funding to provide taxpayer-funded preschool at the elementary schools in 2010-11 and 2011-12. The district received $94,800 to provide preschool. For the both school years, Greater Johnstown School District was a high priority for funding due to the 48% poverty level of children in the district's attendance area.[294][295] For the 2013-14 school year, the district did not receive a Pre K Counts grant. Community Action Partnership of Cambria County received $690,620 to provide preschool to the community.[296][297]

In 2013, the state’s PreK Counts program received $87,284,000. In 2010, the PreK Counts program received $83.6 million statewide in Governor Corbett’s education budget. In 2007-08 the state funded Pre-K Counts at $75 million. Greater Johnstown School District received funding in 2007-08.[298][299][300] The district received $268,600 enrolling 68 students for 2011-12.[301]

In addition to PreK Counts, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania also supplements the federal Head Start preschool program with an additional funding on an annual basis. The program is available to low income children residing within the district through private providers. In 2013, Pennsylvania contributed $39,178,000 to Head Start. In 2010, Head Start received $37.6 million in Pennsylvania state education dollars. Since 2003, Pennsylvania has more than doubled the number of preschoolers in publicly funded pre-kindergarten through a mulipronged system including: school-based pre-kindergarten, Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts through private providers, Early Intervention, Head Start and Head Start Supplemental, and the school district’s use of Accountability Block Grants. Over 100,000 Pennsylvania preschoolers participate in state taxpayer funded pre-kindergarten programs. In 2013, the federal government spent $8 billion for preschool programs nationwide.[302] In 2013, Pennsylvania was awarded a $51.7 million federal grant to fund early learning programs.[303] The funding will be used to create 50 Early Childhood Education Community Innovation Zones in areas where the lowest-performing public schools, including charter schools, exist. The federal dollars were not be used to provide seats for children in preschools. Instead the money was used to build state bureaucray and added training for teachers/providers.[304]

Classrooms for the Future grant[edit]

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006 to 2009. The Greater Johnstown School District applied to participate in 2006-07 receiving $117,753. In 2007-08, the district received another $300,000. Greater Johnstown School District received a final funding of $45,413 in 2008-09.[305] Among the public school districts in Cambria County, the highest award was given to Greater Johnstown School District. The highest funding statewide was awarded to Philadelphia City School District in Philadelphia County - $9,409,073. The grant program was discontinued by Governor Edward Rendell as part of the 2009-10 state budget.

Science It’s Elementary grant[edit]

East Side Elementary School successfully applied to participate and received a Science It’s Elementary grant in 2008-09.[306] For the 2008-09 school year, the program was offered in 143 schools reaching 66,973 students across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[307] In 2007, the Pennsylvania Department of Education initiated an effort to improve science instruction in the Commonwealth’s public elementary schools. Called Science: It’s Elementary, the program was a hands on instruction approach for elementary science classes that develops problem-solving and critical thinking skills.[308] To encourage schools to adopt the program’s standards aligned curriculum, the state provided a grant to cover the costs of materials and extensive mandatory teacher training.[309] The district was required to develop a three-year implementation plan for the participating school. The school district administration was required to appoint a district liaison who was paid $3,000 by PDE to serve as the conduit of all information between the district and the Department and its agents along with submitting orders and distributing supplies to implementing teachers. For the 2006-07 state education budget, $10 million was allocated for the program.[310] The grant program was expanded to $14.5 million in the 2008-09 budget. The grant was discontinued in the state’s 2011 budget by Governor Edward G. Rendell. West Side Elementary School never chose to participate in the program foregoing the state funding.

Education Assistance Grant[edit]

The state's EAP funding provides for the continuing support of tutoring services and other programs to address the academic needs of eligible students. Funds are available to eligible school districts and full-time career and technology centers (CTC) in which one or more schools have failed to meet at least one academic performance target, as provided for in Section 1512-C of the Pennsylvania Public School Code. In 2010-11, Greater Johnstown School District received $214,007.[311] In 2003-04, Governor Rendell signed into law the EAP for targeted tutoring at a funding level of $38 million. Almost 35,000 students in 82 academically challenged school districts received extra help in the first year. The program was continued at the same funding level in 2004-05. In 2005-06, the program received $66 million in funding and expanded to support tutoring in 175 school districts and Career and Technical Centers.

Project 720[edit]

Project 720 was a high school reform program implemented for three years under the Rendell administration. The intent was to increase academic rigor and improve the instruction of teachers in the Commonwealth’s high schools. Teachers were expected to use data driven instructional practices and to meet the needs of diverse learners.[312] The 720 in the name referred to the number of days a student was in high school in ninth through 12th grades. High school’s applied for funding and were required to agree to report to the PDE their plans, their actions and the outcomes. In 2007-08 budget year, the Commonwealth provided $11 million in funding. Greater Johnson School District was one of 161 PA public school districts to apply, receiving $100,000 funding over three years.[313][314] For 2010-11, Project 720 funding was decreased to $1.7 million by Governor Rendell. The grant program was discontinued effective with the 2011-12 state budget.[315]

School Resource Officer and Police Officer grant[edit]

In 2014, Pennsylvania began a grant program providing funding for programs to address school violence and security. Eligible schools and municipalities could apply for up to $60,000 for a school resource officer and up to $40,000 for a school police officer. Greater Johnstown School District applied and was awarded $60,000.[316]

Other grants[edit]

Greater Johnstown School District did not participate in: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental Education annual grants;[317][318] 2012 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy grant;[319] 2013 Safe Schools grants; nor 2012 and 2013 Pennsylvania Hybrid Learning Grants.[320]

Federal Stimulus grant[edit]

The Greater Johnstown School District received an extra $4,084,677 in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[321][322] The federal funding was limited to the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years.[323] Due to the temporary nature of the funding, schools were repeatedly advised by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the Pennsylvania Senate Education Committee, the Governor and the Pennsylvania School Board Association, to use the funds for one-time expenditures like acquiring equipment, making repairs to buildings, training teachers to provide more effective instruction or purchasing books and software.

Race to the Top grant[edit]

Greater Johnstown School District officials did not apply for the federal Race to the Top grant which would have provided several million dollars, in additional federal funding, to improve student academic achievement.[324] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[325] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[326][327][328]

School Improvement Grant[edit]

In the summer of 2011, the district administration applied for a federal School Improvement Grant, (over $9.9 million available). The Middle School was eligible for funding due to chronic, low achievement. The grant stipulates the funds be used for improving student achievement using one of four federally dictated strategies. The strategies are: transformation, turnaround, restart with new faculty and administration or closure of failing schools.[329] The Pennsylvania Education Secretary awarded $66 million to reform Pennsylvania's lowest achieving schools in August 2011. The funding is for three years.[330] Greater JOhnstown Middle School chose a Transformation Model.[331] The district administration established a Planning Committee which interfaced with the Cambria County Child Development, a nonprofit corporation, to align after school and summer programs to support effective tutoring. The school leaders were required to use the Getting Results Continuous School Improvement Plan. These plans were annually reviewed and updated by the planning committee. The Appalachia Intermediate Unit 8 was charged with final review of the plan. As part of the transformation model reform, the principals and (2) assistant principals were to be replaced at the beginning of the 2012-13 school year.[332]

For the 2010-11 school year, Greater Johnstown School District administration did not apply for a School Improvement Grant. It was eligible for funding due to the chronic, low achievement at the schools.[333] In 2010, Pennsylvania received $141 million from the US Department of Education, to turn around its worst-performing schools. The funds were disbursed via a competitive grant program.[334] The Pennsylvania Department of Education identified 200 Pennsylvania schools as "persistently lowest achieving," making them eligible for this special funding.[335] Pennsylvania required low performing schools to apply or provide documentation about why they had not applied. The funds must be used, by the district, to turn around schools in one of four ways: school closure, restart - close the school and reopen it as a charter school. The other two options involve firing the principal. One would require at least half the faculty in a chronically poor performing school be dismissed. The second involves intensive teacher training coupled with strong curriculum revision or a longer school day.[336]

21st Century learning grant[edit]

In July 2003 and 2004, Greater Johnstown School District received a federal grant called 21st Century Learning grant, which is run by the PDE. The grant calls for the establishment and sustainability of community learning centers that provide additional educational services to students in high-poverty and low-performing schools. The grant was competitive. Applications for the grants were reviewed and scored by a panel of representatives from the educational field and professional grant writers. The school received $368,899. In 2010, the district received another $374,400. In 2011, the district received $312,00 and in 2012 it received another $312,000 in federal funding. While 101 entities applied for the funding, only 66 were approved including eight charter schools. The funding is for the 2012-13 fiscal year.[337]

Common Cents state initiative[edit]

The Greater Johnstown School Board elected to not participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program.[338] The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars.[339][340] After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes.

Real estate taxes[edit]

Property tax rates in 2014-2015 were set by the Greater Johnstown School Board at 46.8000 mills.[341] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.[342] Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate - land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and all government property (local, state and federal). Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[343] When a Pennsylvania public school district includes municipalities in two counties, each of which has different rates of property tax assessment, a state board equalizes the tax rates between the counties.[344] In 2010, miscalculations by the State Tax Equalization Board (STEB) were widespread in the Commonwealth and adversely impacted funding for many school districts, including those that did not cross county borders.[345]

The average yearly property tax paid by Cambria County residents amounts to about 2.4% of their yearly income. Beaver County ranked 1048th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[355] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[356] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[357] Pennsylvania's 2011 tax burden of 10.35% ranked 10th highest out of 50 states. The tax burden was above the national average of 9.8%. Pennsylvania's taxpayers paid $4,374 per capita in state and local taxes, including school taxes.[358]

Act 1 Adjusted Index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not permitted to raise property taxes above their annual Act 1 Index unless they either: allow Districts voters to approve the increase through a vote by referendum or they receive an exception from the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The base index for the school year is published by the PDE in the fall of each year. Each individual school district’s Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as local property values and the personal income of district residents. Originally, Act 1 of 2006 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[359]

In June 2011, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed legislation eliminating six of the exceptions to the Act 1 Index.[360] Several exceptions were maintained: 1) costs to pay interest and principal on indebtedness incurred prior to September 4, 2004 for Act 72 schools and prior to June 27, 2006 for non-Act 72 schools; 2) costs to pay interest and principal on electoral debt; 3) costs incurred in providing special education programs and services (beyond what is already paid by the State); and 4) costs due to increases of more than the Index in the school’s share of payments to PSERS (PA school employees pension fund) taking into account the state mandated PSERS contribution rate.[361][362] The legislature also froze the payroll amount public school districts use to calculate the pension-plan exception at the 2012 payroll levels. Further increases in payroll cannot be used to raise the district’s exception for pension payments.

A specific timeline for Act I Index decisions is published annually, by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[363]

The School District Adjusted Index history for the Greater Johnstown School District:

For the 2014-15 budget year, Greater Johnstown School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2014-15, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 21.4% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[369] For the school budget 2014-15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[370]

For the 2013-14 budget year, Greater Johnstown School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2013-14, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 16.93% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[371]

For the 2012-13 budget year, Greater johnstown School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. In 2012-13, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 12.36% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For 2012-2013 budget year, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; while 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[372]

For the 2011-12 school year, the Greater Johnstown School Board did not apply for an exception to exceed the Act 1 Index. In 2011-12, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make an 8.65% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund. Each year, the School Board has the option of adopting either: 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index.

According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions: 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.[373]

The Greater Johnstown School Board did not apply for any exceptions to exceed the Act 1 index for the budget in 2010-11.[374]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2013, Greater Johnstown School District approved 6,351 homestead properties received $215 each.[375] The increase in amount was related to fewer residents applying for tax relief. The amount received by the district must be divided equally among all approved residences.[376] In 2009, Greater Johnstown School District approved 6,429 homestead properties to receive $212 in property tax relief.[377] The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. The amount of property tax relief each Pennsylvania public school district receives is announced by the PDE in May of each year. The amount of tax relief is dependent on the total tax revenue collected on the casino slots in the previous year. Thirty five percent of the slots tax revenues are used for property tax relief.

In Cambria County, the highest tax relief went to Ferndale Area School District which was set at $214.[378] The highest property tax relief provided, among Pennsylvania school districts, goes to the homesteads of Chester Upland School District in Delaware County which received $632 per approved homestead in 2010. Chester-Upland School District has consistently been the top recipient since the programs inception.[379] The tax relief was started by Governor Edward G. Rendell with passage of the state gaming law in 2004. Rendell promised taxpayers substantial property tax relief from legalized gambling.[380] In Cambria County, only 54.3% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009. This was among the lowest participation rates in Pennsylvania.[381]

Some Greater Johnstown School District residents, including: low income residents aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older, can qualify for the state's Property Tax/Rent Rebate program. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners.[382] Residents must apply annually to receive up to $650. The Property tax/rent rebate program is funded by revenues from the Pennsylvania Lottery. In 2012, these property tax rebates were increased by an additional 50 percent for senior households in the state, so long as those households have incomes under $30,000 and pay more than 15% of their income in property taxes.[383]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Great Johnstown School District offers a wide variety of clubs, activities and an extensive, publicly funded sports program.[384] Eligibility for participation is determined by school board policy and in compliance with standards set by the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA). The district is part of the Laurel Highlands Athletic League and PIAA District 6. The district reported spending $928,978.47 on student activities in 2014-15 school year.[385] The district is noncompliant with state law, due to failing to post its annual Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities Disclosure Form on its website.

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students residing in the school district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[386]

According to PA Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Act 126 of 2014, all volunteer coaches and all those who assist in student activities must have criminal background checks. Like all school district employees, they must also attend an anti child abuse training once every three years.[387][388][389]

Sports[edit]

Coaches receive compensation as outlined in the teachers' union contract. When athletic competition exceeds the regular season, additional compensation is paid.[390]

Article XVI-C of the Public School Code requires the disclosure of interscholastic athletic opportunities for all public secondary school entities in Pennsylvania. All school entities with grades 7-12 are required to annually collect data concerning team and financial information for all male and female athletes beginning with the 2012-13 school year and submit the information to the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Beginning with the 2013-14 school year, all non-school (booster club and alumni) contributions and purchases must also be reported to PDE.[391]

According to Pennsylvania’s Safety in Youth Sports Act, all sports coaches, paid and volunteer, are required to annually complete the Concussion Management Certification Training and present the certification before coaching.[392][393]

Varsity
Middle School Sports
  • PeeWee football is also provided

According to PIAA directory July 2015[394]

Notable alumni[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PDE (2015). "Education Names and Addresses". 
  2. ^ Barbara Parkins (2015). "Barbara Parkins career". 
  3. ^ Ron Musselman (May 5, 2015). "Johnstown school board OKs tentative budget of $46 million, honors freshman for helping children". The Tribune Democrat. 
  4. ^ Jason Subik (April 9, 2009). "Johnstown district plans no hike in levy". The Daily Gazette. 
  5. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (December 4, 2014). "Greater Johnstown School District Fast Facts 2014". 
  6. ^ NCES, Common Core of Data Greater Johnstown School DIstrict, 2015
  7. ^ PDE, Enrollment and Projections by LEA, July 2010
  8. ^ PDE, Enrollment by LEA, 2013
  9. ^ US Census Bureau, 2010 Census Poverty Data by Local Education Agency, 2011
  10. ^ proximityone (2014). "School District Comparative Analysis Profiles". 
  11. ^ http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/12poverty.shtml
  12. ^ Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, Education Facts Student Poverty Concentration by LEA, 2012
  13. ^ US Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, 2009
  14. ^ US Census Bureau (2010). "American Fact Finder, State and County quick facts". 
  15. ^ US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010" (PDF). 
  16. ^ US Census Bureau (2014). "Pennsylvania Median household income, 2006-2010 by County". 
  17. ^ Michael Sauter; Alexander E.M. Hess (August 31, 2013). "America's most popular six-figure jobs". USA Today. 
  18. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development (April 2014). "Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit Program FAQ". 
  19. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2012). "Tuition rate Fiscal Year 2011-2012". 
  20. ^ Olsen, Laura, State list of failing schools has 53 in county, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 26, 2012
  21. ^ PDE, Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit Program 2013-14, 2013
  22. ^ PDE, Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit Program 2014-15, 2014
  23. ^ PDE (2015). "Opportunity Scholarship Tax Credit Program 2015-16". 
  24. ^ Karen Langley (November 10, 2014). "Six school districts file suit against Pennsylvania over school funding". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  25. ^ President Judge Dan Pellegrini (April 21, 2015). "No. 587 M.D. 2014 Argued March 11, 2015" (PDF). 
  26. ^ Eleanor Chute (May 20, 2015). "Commonwealth Court decision on Pa. school funding appealed". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  27. ^ Pennsylvania Public School Code Governance 2010
  28. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Pennsylvania School Code, 2013
  29. ^ Commonwealth Foundation, The Pennsylvania Project, July 26, 2010
  30. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 10, 2015). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2015". 
  31. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "What makes up a district's School Performance Profile score?". 
  32. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "Western Pennsylvania School Guide 2014". 
  33. ^ "Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2013". Pittsburgh Business Times. April 5, 2013. 
  34. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2012, April 4, 2012
  35. ^ "Three of top school districts in state hail from Allegheny County". Pittsburgh Business Times. May 23, 2007. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. 
  36. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Greater Johnstown School District AYP Overview 2012". 
  37. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "About Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in Pennsylvania". Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. 
  38. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania Public School District AYP History, 2011
  39. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown School District AYP overview 2007, 2007
  40. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania District AYP History 2003-2010, 2011
  41. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2014
  42. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2013
  43. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Greater Johnstown School District AYP Data Table 2012". 
  44. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown School District AYP Data Table 2011, September 29, 2011
  45. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 15, 2011). "New 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate Calculation Now Being Implemented". Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. 
  46. ^ The Times-Tribune (June 27, 2010). "PA School District Statistical Snapshot Database 2008-09". 
  47. ^ The Times-Tribune (June 25, 2009). "County School Districts Graduation Rates 2008". 
  48. ^ Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children (2008). "High School Graduation rate 2007" (PDF). 
  49. ^ US News and World Report, Best High Schools, 2014
  50. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data - Greater Johnstown High School, 2013
  51. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Greater Johnstown High School 2012, September 21, 2012
  52. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Greater Johnstown High School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  53. ^ Evamarie Socha (November 6, 2014). "Half of Valley districts see state test scores decline". The Daily Item. 
  54. ^ Eleanor Chute (November 21, 2014). "Pennsylvania student scores declined with reduced funding, test results show". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  55. ^ Acting Secretary of Education Carolyn Dumaresq, Acting Secretary of Education Announces Results of 2013-14 School Performance Profile; Strong Performance in 72 Percent of Schools, November 6, 2014
  56. ^ Kathy Boccella; Dylan Purcell; Kristen A. Graham (November 6, 2014). "Pa. school rankings: Downingtown STEM No. 1; Phila. falters". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  57. ^ Jan Murphy (November 6, 2014). "More Pa. school scores decline than improve, state report card shows". Pennlive.com. 
  58. ^ Evamarie Socha (November 6, 2014). "Half of Valley districts see state test scores decline". 
  59. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Performance Data 2013, October 4, 2013
  60. ^ Eleanor Chute; Mary Niederberger (December 11, 2013). "New assessment shows fuller picture of Pa. schools". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  61. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Greater Johnstown High School Academic Report Card 2012". 
  62. ^ US Department of Education (2003). "NCLB Parental Notices". 
  63. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "School Improvement Grant". 
  64. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  65. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Report Card 2007, 2007
  66. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "School Improvement Grant". 
  67. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Academic Standards". 
  68. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Assessment System". 
  69. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2012). "2011-2012 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  70. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  71. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2009-2010 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  72. ^ The Times-Tribune (September 14, 2009). "Grading Our Schools database, 2009 PSSA results". 
  73. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (August 15, 2008). "2007-2008 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  74. ^ "How is your school doing?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 15, 2012. 
  75. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  76. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  77. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2009, September 14, 2009
  78. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2008, August 15, 2008
  79. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Greater Johnstown High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  80. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA results in Science". 
  81. ^ The Times-Tribune (2009). "Grading Our Schools database, 2009 Science PSSA results". 
  82. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2008). "Report on PSSA Science results by school and grade 2008". 
  83. ^ Jan Murphy (January 30, 2009). "Report: One-third of local high schoolers unprepared for college". Pennlive.com. 
  84. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (January 20, 2009). "Pennsylvania College Remediation Report 2009". 
  85. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, IPEDS Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, 2008
  86. ^ Achieve.org (2014). "The Value of the College- and Career- Ready Agenda in Pennsylvania" (PDF). 
  87. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Dual Enrollment Guidelines, 2010
  88. ^ Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (March 2010). "Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement". 
  89. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Dual Enrollment Guidelines". 
  90. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2009). "Pennsylvania Dual Enrollment Allocations to school districts for 2009-10". 
  91. ^ Greater Johnstown School District Administration (2015). "Greater Johnstown School District Parent-Student handbook 2015" (PDF). 
  92. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education. "Pennsylvania Code §4.24 (a) High school graduation requirements". 
  93. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education, Proposed changes to Chapter 4, May 10, 2012
  94. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Keystone Exam Overview" (PDF). 
  95. ^ Megan Harris (September 12, 2013). "Pennsylvania changing high school graduation requirements". Tribune Live. 
  96. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "Pennsylvania Keystone Exams Overview". Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. 
  97. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (2010). "Rules and Regulation Title 22 PA School Code CH. 4". 
  98. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, State Board of Education Finalizes Adoption of Pennsylvania Common Core State Academic Standards and High School Graduation Requirements, March 14, 2013
  99. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Keystone Exams". 
  100. ^ PDE, School Performance profile, November 6, 2014
  101. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "SAT and ACT Scores". 
  102. ^ College Board (2014). "2014 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report" (PDF). 
  103. ^ College Board (2013). "The 2013 SAT Report on College & Career Readiness". 
  104. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Public School SAT Scores 2011". Archived from the original on 2011-10-15. 
  105. ^ College Board (September 15, 2011). "SAT Scores State By State - Pennsylvania". Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. 
  106. ^ "While U.S. SAT scores dip across the board, N.J. test-takers hold steady". NJ.com. September 15, 2011. 
  107. ^ The Center for Rural Pennsylvania (August 2006). "SAT Scores and Other School Data". 
  108. ^ College Board (2014). "Exam Fees and Reductions: 2015". Archived from the original on 2014-12-27. 
  109. ^ PDE, School Performance Profile - Academic Performance Data - Greater Johnstown High School, December 4, 2014
  110. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Greater Johnstown Middle School Fast Facts 2014". 
  111. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Greater Johnstown Middle School, November 6, 2014
  112. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data – Greater Johnstown Middle School, 2012
  113. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Greater Johnstown Middle School, September 21, 2012
  114. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  115. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Performance Data 2013, October 4, 2013
  116. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2012". 
  117. ^ US Department of Education (2003). "NCLB Parental Notices". 
  118. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "School Improvement Grant". 
  119. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2011, September 29, 2011
  120. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2010, October 20, 2010
  121. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2009, September 14, 2009
  122. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2008, August 15, 2008
  123. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2007, 2007
  124. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School AYP Overview 2006, 2006
  125. ^ "How is your school doing?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 15, 2012. 
  126. ^ The Times-Tribune (2011). "Grading Our Schools database, 2010-11 Reading PSSA results". 
  127. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Report Card 2010, October 4, 2010
  128. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Report Card 2009, September 14, 2009
  129. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (August 15, 2008). "Reading and Math PSSA 2008 by Schools". 
  130. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  131. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  132. ^ The Times-Tribune (2010). "Grading Our Schools database, 2009-10 PSSA results". 
  133. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2009 PSSAs: Reading, Math, Writing and Science Results, September 14, 2009
  134. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Report Card 2008, August 15, 2008
  135. ^ PDE, Greater Johnstown Middle School Academic Report Card 2007, 2007
  136. ^ The Times-Tribune (2012). "Grading Our Schools database, 2011-12 Science PSSA results". 
  137. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (August 2010). "Science PSSA 2010 by Schools". 
  138. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Science PSSA 2009 by Schools, August 2009
  139. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Science PSSA 2008 by Schools, August 15, 2008
  140. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "West Side Elementary School Fast Facts 2014". 
  141. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, School Performance Profile, West Side Elementary School Fast Facts, 2014
  142. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data – West Side Elementary School, 2011
  143. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers West Side Elementary School, September 21, 2012
  144. ^ Pennsylvania Partnership for Children, Full-Day Kindergarten Enrollment, 2010
  145. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "West Side Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  146. ^ PDE, West Side Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2013, October 4, 2013
  147. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "West Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2012". 
  148. ^ PDE, West Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2011, September 29, 2011
  149. ^ PDE, West Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2010, October 4, 2010
  150. ^ PDE, West Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2009, September 14, 2008
  151. ^ PDE, West Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2008, August 15, 2008
  152. ^ PDE, West Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2007, 2007
  153. ^ PDE, Full Day Kindergarten report 2010-11, 2010
  154. ^ PDE, Governor Rendell Announces Grants for 'Pre-K Counts' Early Childhood Initiative, 2007
  155. ^ Malia Villegas, Early Education Policy Brief, WestEd Center on Policy, April 2005
  156. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Greater Johnstown School District academic report card 2012, 2012
  157. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (2003). "PSSA results 2003". 
  158. ^ New America Foundation (2003). "No Child Left Behind Overview". 
  159. ^ The Goals of No Child Left Behind (Jul 20, 2010). "The Goals of No Child Left Behind". 
  160. ^ Learning Point Associates (2002). "Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act" (PDF). 
  161. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (January 11, 2003). "Pennsylvania Academic Standards Science and Technology, Ecology and Environment". 
  162. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "West Side Elementary School Academic Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  163. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, West Side Elementary School Academic Report Card 2012, September 29, 2011
  164. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, West Side Elementary School Academic Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  165. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, West Side Elementary School Academic Report Card 2009, September 14, 2009
  166. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, West Side Elementary School Academic Report Card 2008, August 15, 2008
  167. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, West Side Elementary School Academic Report Card 2007, 2007
  168. ^ "How is your school doing?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 15, 2012. 
  169. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "East Side Elementary School Fast Facts 2014". 
  170. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, School Performance Profile, East Side Elementary School Fast Facts, 2014
  171. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data – East Side Elementary School, 2011
  172. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers East Side Elementary School, September 21, 2012
  173. ^ Pennsylvania Partnership for Children, Full-Day Kindergarten Enrollment, 2010
  174. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "East Side Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  175. ^ PDE, East Side Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2013, October 4, 2013
  176. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2012". 
  177. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2011, September 29, 2011
  178. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2010, October 20, 2010
  179. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2009, September 14, 2009
  180. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2008, August 15, 2008
  181. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2007, 2007
  182. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2006, 2006
  183. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School AYP Overview 2005, 2005
  184. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "East Side Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  185. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012, September 29, 2011
  186. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  187. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2009, September 14, 2009
  188. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2008, August 15, 2008
  189. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, East Side Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2007, 2007
  190. ^ "How is your school doing?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 15, 2012. 
  191. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2014). "Greater Johnstown School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. 
  192. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2012). "Greater Johnstown School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. 
  193. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2009). "Greater Johnstown School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. 
  194. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Testimony Hearing on Special Education Senate Republican Policy Committee, January 2013
  195. ^ Gerald L. Zahorchak, D. Ed. (May 30, 2007). "House Education Committee Hearing on Governor's Proposed Increase for Accountability Block Grants Testimony for Gerald L. Zahorchak, D. Ed" (PDF). 
  196. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education (2008). "Pennsylvania Parent Guide to Special Education Services" (PDF). 
  197. ^ Greater Johnstown School District Administration (2015). "Annual Public Notice". 
  198. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education - Greater Johnstown School District Administration (January 6, 2011). "Procedural Safeguards Notice". 
  199. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Special Education (September 2005). "Gaskin Settlement Agreement Overview Facts Sheet" (PDF). 
  200. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Pennsylvania Special Education Funding". 
  201. ^ Browne, Patrick., Senate Education Committee Hearing on Special Education Funding & Accountability testimony, November 1, 2011
  202. ^ Kintisch, Baruch., Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Education Law Center, November 11, 2011
  203. ^ Amy Morton, Executive Deputy Secretary, Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Pennsylvania Department of Education, November 11, 2011
  204. ^ US Department of Education (January 25, 2013). "U.S. Department of Education Clarifies Schools' Obligation to Provide Equal Opportunity to Students with Disabilities to Participate in Extracurricular Athletics". 
  205. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Special Education Funding from Pennsylvania State_2010-2011". 
  206. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  207. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in PA kids, April 2012
  208. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Special Education funding report by LEA, July 2014
  209. ^ Special Education Funding Reform Commission (December 11, 2015). "Special Education Funding Reform Commission Report" (PDF). 
  210. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, LRE Index Scores and Identification for Monitoring, 2010
  211. ^ Martin Elks (June 3, 2010). "FINAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU DIRECTOR'S ADVISORY PANEL ON LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT FOLLOWING GASKIN V. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SEPTEMBER, 2005—JUNE, 2010" (PDF). 
  212. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 1, 2002). "Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and Educational Placement for Students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)". Archived from the original on January 8, 2013. 
  213. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 1, 1997). "Placement Options for Special Education". 
  214. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. 
  215. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  216. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 26, 2010). "Special Education for Gifted Students Notice of Parental rights" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. 
  217. ^ Greater Johnstown School Board Policy Manual, Student Wellness Policy 246, 2015
  218. ^ Probart C, McDonnell E, Weirich JE, Schilling L, Fekete V (September 2008). "Statewide assessment of local wellness policies in Pennsylvania public school districts". J Am Diet Assoc. 108 (9): 1497–502. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.06.429. PMID 18755322. 
  219. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education – Division of Food and Nutrition (July 2008). "Nutrition Standards for Competitive Foods in Pennsylvania Schools for the School Nutrition Incentive". 
  220. ^ USDA, Child Nutrition Programs - Eligibility Manual for School Meals, 2012
  221. ^ Pennsylvania Hunger Action Center, The Pennsylvania School Breakfast Report Card, 2009
  222. ^ USDA, Child Nutrition Programs, June 27, 2013
  223. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (2011). "Food and Nutrition Service Equity in School Lunch Pricing Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-22. 
  224. ^ Denver Nicks (February 25, 2014). "White House Sets New Limits on Junk Food Ads in Schools". Time Magazine. 
  225. ^ USDA Food and Nutrition Service (2014). "School Meals FAQ". 
  226. ^ Monica Eng (November 26, 2012). "Lactose intolerance: When drinking school milk makes students feel sick". Chicago Tribune. 
  227. ^ Pennsylvania State Department of Health (2010). "Pennsylvania Bulletin Doc. No. 10-984 School Immunizations; Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases". 
  228. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Health (2014). "School Immunization Requirements". 
  229. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Health (2014). "Mandated School Health Screenings". 
  230. ^ Kristin Ioannou; Highmark. Inc. (2007). "Highmark Healthy High 5 Health eTools for Schools Available Free Through 2009". 
  231. ^ Cathy Hoffman, Interlink (September 2, 2008). "Highmark Foundation Extends Subsidy for Health eTools for Schools through 2013" (PDF). 
  232. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, June 27, 2006
  233. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in Pennsylvania Students, December 4, 2014
  234. ^ "Greater Johsntown School District Payroll report 2013". OpenPA Gov.org. 2014. Archived from the original on 2012-06-16. 
  235. ^ Times Tribune (June 16, 2013). "PA Teacher Profile Database 2011-12". 
  236. ^ Pennsylvania School Employees Retirement System (2014). "Your PSERS Benefits & Leaving Employment". 
  237. ^ American Enterprise Institute (2011). "Assessing the Compensation of Public School Teachers". Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. 
  238. ^ "PA. Public School Salaries". Asbury Park Press. 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-07-21. 
  239. ^ Greater Johnstown School Board (2007). "Greater Johnstown School District Teacher Union Employment Contract 2007-2013". Archived from the original on 2012-06-16. 
  240. ^ Ron Musselman (June 30, 2015). "Greater Johnstown School District approves sale of office building". The Tribune Democrat. 
  241. ^ Fenton, Jacob., Pennsylvania School District Data: Will School Consolidation Save Money?, The Morning Call, February 2009
  242. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (October 2009). "Public School Salaries 11th Annual". Archived from the original on 2008-10-05. 
  243. ^ Pennsylvania School Board Association (June 22, 2012). "School Management Salaries Report". School Leader News. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. 
  244. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2012). "2009-10 Selected Data - 2012-13 Total Expenditures per ADM". 
  245. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "2012-13 Selected Data - 2012-13 Total Expenditures per ADM". 
  246. ^ US Census Bureau, States Ranked According to Per Pupil Public Elementary-Secondary School System Finance Amounts: Fiscal Year 2011, May 2013
  247. ^ US Census Bureau (2009). "Total and current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary education, by function and state or jurisdiction: 2006-07". 
  248. ^ US Census Bureau (March 2003). "Public Education Finances 2000-01 Annual Survey of Local Government Finances" (PDF). 
  249. ^ US Census Bureau (2009). "Total and current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary education, by function and state or jurisdiction: 2006-07". 
  250. ^ United States Census Bureau (2009). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Elementary-Secondary Public School System Finance Amounts: 2008-09" (PDF). 
  251. ^ US Census Bureau (May 2013). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Public Elementary-Secondary School System Finance Amounts: Fiscal Year 2011" (PDF). 
  252. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2008). "General Reserved Fund Balance by School District 1996-2008". 
  253. ^ Murphy, Jan., Pennsylvania's public schools boost reserves, CentreDaily Times, September 22, 2010
  254. ^ John Baer (December 9, 2013). "Pa. schools and $$ behind the curtain". Philadelphia Daily News. 
  255. ^ Melissa Daniels (June 1, 2013). "PA school districts look to cash stash to balance budgets". PA Independent. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. 
  256. ^ Jan Murphy (August 18, 2014). "School district reserves rise despite $1 billion cut in state aid". Pennlive.com. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. 
  257. ^ Commonwealth Foundation (May 17, 2012). "Chart: School District Fund Balances Nearly Tripled in 14 Years". Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. 
  258. ^ MARK SCOLFORO (November 18, 2009). "Study charts use of 'swap' deals by Pa. schools". The Tribune-Democrat. 
  259. ^ Janney Montgomery Scott (April 7, 2015). "Greater Johnstown School District Bonds" (PDF). 
  260. ^ Auditor General Jack Wagner (November 2009). "The use of Qualified Interest Rate Management Agreements (SWAPA)" (PDF). 
  261. ^ Jack Wagner; State Auditor General (November 2009). "Auditor General Jack Wagner Calls on General Assembly to Ban Risky "Swap" Contracts by Schools, Local Governments". 
  262. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2013). "Pennsylvania Public School District Tuition Rates". 
  263. ^ Pennsylvania of Community; Economic Development (2012). "Earned Income Tax". Archived from the original on 2013-09-30. 
  264. ^ Penn State Cooperative Extension (2010). "What are the Local Taxes in Pennsylvania?, Local Tax Reform Education Project" (PDF). 
  265. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (April 2010). "Personal Income Taxation Guidelines". Archived from the original on 2009-12-13. 
  266. ^ John Finnerty (2013). "PA teachers pensions". CNHI Harrisburg Bureau. 
  267. ^ Pennsylvania Representative Todd Stephens (January 23, 2014). "LEEF Funding Chart 2014". 
  268. ^ JANICE BISSETT; ARNOLD HILLMAN (2006). "A Summary of the History and Financing of Education in Pennsylvania 1682- 2013" (PDF). PA Association of Rural and Small Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-23. 
  269. ^ PDE (July 7, 2014). "Enacted Education Budget 2014-2015". 
  270. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-15 Enacted Education Budget Fast Facts, July 14, 2014
  271. ^ Democrat Appropriations Committee, Report on Education funding by LEA, July 2, 2013
  272. ^ Sam Wood; Brian X. McCrone (January 29, 2014). "Montgomery County lawmaker proposes using Pa. horse racing funds for education". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  273. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Budget, 2013-14 State Budget Highlights, 2013
  274. ^ Senator Jake Corman (June 28, 2012). "Pennsylvania Education funding by Local School District" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2012. 
  275. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly Sen Jake Corman (June 29, 2012). "SB1466 of 2012 General Fund Appropriation". 
  276. ^ PA Senate Appropriations Committee (June 28, 2011). "School District 2011-12 Funding Report". Archived from the original on September 10, 2013. 
  277. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2011). "Basic Education Funding". 
  278. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 30, 2011). "Basic Education Funding". 
  279. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 30, 2011). "Basic Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  280. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, District Allocations Report 2009, 2009-10
  281. ^ Pennsylvania House Appropriations Committee (June 30, 2010). "PA Basic Education Funding-Printout2 2010-2011" (PDF). 
  282. ^ Office of the Budget (February 2010). "Pennsylvania Budget Proposal 2010". 
  283. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 2009). "Funding Allocations by district 2009-10". 
  284. ^ Pennsylvania Office of Budget (February 2009). "Governor's Budget Proposal 2009 Pennsylvania Department of Education Budget Proposal 2009". Archived from the original on 2009-12-24. 
  285. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Funding Report by LEA, 2009
  286. ^ U.S. Census Bureau., Annual Survey of Local Government Finances., 2000
  287. ^ U.S. Census Bureau., 2008 Survey of Local Government Finances – School Systems, 2010
  288. ^ Governor's Budget Office (2014). "Past Budgets 2013-14 to 2006-07". 
  289. ^ State Senator Lloyd Smucker Senate Education Committee Chairperson, PCNTV Interview state education Budget, June 2015
  290. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Accountability Block Grant report Grantee list 2010, October 2010
  291. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2008). "Accountability Block Grant Mid Year report". 
  292. ^ Pennsylvania Partnership for Children, Full-Day Kindergarten Enrollment, 2011
  293. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Passport for Learning Block Grant". 
  294. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Early Childhood Advisor, Poverty Level by School District, 2007
  295. ^ Office of Child Development and Early Learning (2011). "Pre-K Counts Grantees". 
  296. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania 2013-14 Pre-K Counts Grantees 2013-13, August 2013
  297. ^ Office of Child Development and Early Learning (2008). "Applicants of PA Pre-K Counts for FY 2008-2009" (PDF). 
  298. ^ Governor's Press Office (August 10, 2007). "Governor Rendell Announces Grants for 'Pre-K Counts' Early Childhood Initiative". 
  299. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Pennsylvania PreK Counts End of Year Report 2009-10" (PDF). 
  300. ^ Office of Child Development and Early Learning (2009). "Early Childhood Programs - PreK Counts". 
  301. ^ Office of Child Development and Early Learning (2012). "Pre-K Counts Report on Program Operations For Fiscal Year 2011-12". 
  302. ^ Claudio Sanchez (April 22, 2014). "What Exactly Is 'High-Quality' Preschool?". NPR.org. 
  303. ^ Jan Murphy (December 19, 2013). "Corbett: What Pa. will do with $51.7 million early learning grant". The Patriot-News. 
  304. ^ US Department of Education (December 19, 2013). "Six States Awarded Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) Grants to Build Statewide Systems of High-Quality Early Learning". 
  305. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (December 22, 2008). "Classrooms for the Future grants audit". 
  306. ^ Cynthia Pulkowski Director, Science: It’s Elementary, Science Its Elementary 2008-2009, 2009
  307. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Science: It’s Elementary Grantees Students in 143 Schools Benefit from Intensive Science Curriculum, July 22, 2008
  308. ^ Patricia Vathis Pennsylvania Department of Education, Grants and Subsidies Science: It’s Elementary, 2006
  309. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010-11 Science: It’s Elementary Application Guidelines, July 2010
  310. ^ Press Office PDE (August 4, 2009). "Science its Elementary". 
  311. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Educational Assistance Program Funding 2010-2011 Fiscal Year, 2010
  312. ^ CAIU 15 (2007). "Project 720". Archived from the original on 2015-06-26. 
  313. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2007). "Transforming Pennsylvania High Schools". 
  314. ^ Robert Hayes Postupac, PROJECT 720: A CASE STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL REFORM, University of Pittsburgh, 2011
  315. ^ PA Office of the Budget, 2011-12 Budget General Fund - State Appropriations, June 28, 2011
  316. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2013-14 School Resource Office/School Police Officer Grant Awardees, 2014
  317. ^ Department of Environmental Protection (2014). "Environmental Education Grants". 
  318. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (April 22, 2013). "Governor Corbett Awards 92 Grants for Environmental Education and Stewardship". 
  319. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 23, 2012). "Pennsylvania Awards $36.1 Million to Strengthen Literacy Programs". 
  320. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Press Office (October 17, 2013). "Acting Secretary of Education Says Hybrid Learning Benefits Students; Highlights Success of First-Year Pilot Program". 
  321. ^ Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, County ARRA FUNDING Report, 2009
  322. ^ ProPublica (2009). "Recovery Tracker Eye on the stimulus". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. 
  323. ^ "School stimulus money". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. March 12, 2009. 
  324. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Race To The Top Webinar powerpoint for districts December 2009, December 9, 2009
  325. ^ Governor's Press Office release (January 20, 2010). "Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support". 
  326. ^ Race to the Top Fund, U.S. Department of Education, March 29, 2010.
  327. ^ Gerald Zahorchak (December 2008). "Pennsylvania Race to the Top Letter to Superintendents" (PDF). 
  328. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (January 19, 2009). "Pennsylvania Race to the Top -School Districts Title I Allocations 2009-10". 
  329. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Pennsylvania School Improvement Planning". Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. 
  330. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (August 23, 2011). "Education Secretary Announces $66 Million Awarded to Reform Pennsylvania Lowest-Achieving Schools". 
  331. ^ Greater Johnstown School District Administration (2011). "Greater Johnstown School District SIG application and grant". 
  332. ^ Greater Johnstown School District Administration, Funded 2011-12 SIG Greater Johnstown School District application, 2011
  333. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "School Improvement grants 2010". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. 
  334. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "School Improvement information". 
  335. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania School Improvement Grant Components_Stat_Requirements, 2010
  336. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 9, 2010). "Pennsylvania School Improvement Grant Components_Stat_Requirements" (PDF). 
  337. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Education Secretary Announces $19.78 Million Awarded to Enhance Academic Opportunities for At-Risk Students, July 11, 2012
  338. ^ Governor Office Press release (March 12, 2008). "PA Education Department Announces 39 Districts to Take Part in 'Common Cents' Cost-Saving". 
  339. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Common Cents program - Making Every Dollar Count, 2007
  340. ^ PA General Assembly Task Force on School Cost Reduction (November 16, 2006). "Final Report Task Force on School Cost Reduction Findings and Recommendations". 
  341. ^ PDE (October 2014). "Finances RE Tax Rates 2014-15". 
  342. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2012). "Real Estate Tax Rates by School District 2012-13 Real Estate Mills". 
  343. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2004). "Act 511 Tax Report". 
  344. ^ State Tax Equalization Board (2011). "State Tax Equalization Board About US". Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. 
  345. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General Office - Bureau of Audits (February 2011). "A Special Performance Audit of the Pennsylvania State Tax Equalization Boards" (PDF). 
  346. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "Real Estate Tax Rates by School District 2013-14 Real Estate Mills". 
  347. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Finances_Real Estate Tax Rates 2012-13, 2012
  348. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  349. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  350. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Financial Elements Reports, 2010
  351. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Financial Elements Reports 2008-09 Real Estate Mills, 2009
  352. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Real Estate Tax Millage by School District, 2008
  353. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Real Estate Tax Millage by School District, 2006
  354. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Real Estate Tax Millage by School District, 2005
  355. ^ Tax-rates.org., The 2015 Tax Resource County Property Taxes 2014, 2015
  356. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania School Finances - Summaries of Annual Financial Report Data 2010-11, 2011
  357. ^ New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners, Tax Foundation, September 22, 2009.
  358. ^ Tax Foundation, The facts on Pennsylvania’s Tax Climate, January 2015
  359. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines". 
  360. ^ Kaitlynn Riely (August 4, 2011). "Law could restrict school construction projects". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  361. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (June 29, 2011). "SB330 of 2011". 
  362. ^ Eric Boehm (July 1, 2011). "Property tax reform final piece of state budget". PA Independent. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. 
  363. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information". 
  364. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2011-2012". 
  365. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2012-2013 School District Adjusted Index, September 2011
  366. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2013-2014 School District Adjusted Index, September 2012
  367. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-2015 School District Adjusted Index, September 2013
  368. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2015-2016 School District Adjusted Index, September 2014
  369. ^ Pennsylvania School Employees, Retirement System, PSERS Chart showing payment mandates 2007-2020, 2014
  370. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 30, 2014). "Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2014-2015". 
  371. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2013-2014, April 2013
  372. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2012-2013, March 30, 2012
  373. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2011). "Report on Exceptions". 
  374. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2010). "Report on Referendum Exceptions for 2010-2011". 
  375. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 1, 2013). "2013-2014 Estimated State Property Tax Relief per Homestead". 
  376. ^ Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board (2014). "Gaming Benefits for Pennsylvanians". Archived from the original on 2015-06-26. 
  377. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 1, 2009). "2009 Estimated State Property Tax Relief per Homestead". 
  378. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Tax Relief per Homestead, May 1, 2009.
  379. ^ Tax Relief per Homestead 2009, Pennsylvania Department of Education Report, May 1, 2009
  380. ^ AP (September 14, 2014). "Casino revenue has not provided level of tax relief promised to Pa. property owners". Pennlive.com. 
  381. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Auditor General, Jack Wagner (February 2010). "Property Tax Relief in Pennsylvania Special Report," (PDF). 
  382. ^ Department of Revenue (2014). "Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program". 
  383. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Revenue., Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program, June 2012
  384. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Disclosure of Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities". 
  385. ^ Greater Johnstown School District Business Administration office (January 13, 2015). "Budget report 2014-15 revised addition" (PDF). 
  386. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Governor Press Release (November 10, 2005). "Home-Schooled, Charter School Children Can Participate in School District Extracurricular Activities". 
  387. ^ Eleanor Chute., New Pa. law expands clearance requirements for school volunteers, employees, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 15, 2014
  388. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (2014). "ACT 126 – Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Act". 
  389. ^ Ali Stevens., Child Protective Services Law impacts schools, WKOK.com 1070AM, January 6, 2015
  390. ^ Greater Johnstown School Board, Greater Johnstown School District Teacher Union Contract, 2014
  391. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities Disclosure Form" (PDF). 
  392. ^ PA General Assembly (July 1, 2012). "Senate Bill 200 of Session 2011 Safety in Youth Sports Act". 
  393. ^ UMPC Sports Medicine (2014). "Managing Concussions in Student Athletes: The Safety in Youth Sports Act". 
  394. ^ Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletics Association (2015). "PIAA School Directory". 

External links[edit]