Gymnopus peronatus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Gymnopus peronatus
Collybia peronata 20070812wb.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Omphalotaceae or Marasmiaceae
Genus: Gymnopus
Species: G. peronatus
Binomial name
Gymnopus peronatus
(Bolton) Gray (1821)

Collybia peronata (Bolton) P. Kumm. Marasmius urens (Bull.) Fr.

Gymnopus peronatus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex
hymenium is free
stipe is bare
spore print is white
ecology is saprotrophic

edibility: edible, but unpalatable

or unknown

Gymnopus peronatus (formerly called Collybia peronata or Marasmius urens) is a species of gilled mushroom which is common in European woods. The English name wood woolly-foot has been given to this species.[1][2]


This species was originally described by James Bolton in his 1788 book "An history of fungusses, growing about Halifax" as Agaricus peronatus at a time when all gilled mushrooms were assigned to genus Agaricus.[3] Then in 1821 another Englishman, Samuel Frederick Gray published his “Natural Arrangement of British Plants” (including fungi) in which he allocated the species to the already existing genus Gymnopus.[4]

In 1791 Bulliard described the same species as Agaricus urens, the epithet "urens" ("burning") referring to the acrid taste, and in 1836 Fries put it genus Marasmius. Also in 1871 Paul Kummer put this mushroom in genus Collybia, giving it the name Collybia peronata. For many years it was known either as Marasmius urens or Collybia peronata (or sometimes Marasmius peronatus or Collybia urens). The peronatus and urens forms have been distinguished as different species, urens having a lighter-coloured cap, but this view is outdated.[5][6]

In much later work culminating in 1997, Antonín and Noordeloos found that the genus Collybia as defined at that time was unsatisfactory due to being polyphyletic and they proposed a fundamental rearrangement. They resurrected the genus Gymnopus for some species including peronata, and after subsequent DNA studies, this has been accepted by modern authorities including Species Fungorum and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, and so its current name has reverted to Gray's combination, Gymnopus peronatus.[7][8][9]

The species name peronatus indicates that the stem is partially "booted" with a hairy covering below (from the Latin peronatus meaning half-booted).[10]


The following sections use the given references throughout.[11][12][6][13]


Yellowish specimens
  • The cap grows from about 2 cm to 6 cm, and is yellowish or reddish brown.
  • There is no ring or other veil remnant. The stem is roughly the same colour as the cap and up to about 8 cm long and only 0.5  cm in diameter. It is typically pruinose ("frosted") above and strigose (hairy) near the base.
  • The well-spaced gills are concolorous with the cap or somewhat lighter.
  • The undamaged mushroom has little smell, but on bruising it has an aroma of vinegar. The taste is acrid or peppery.

Microscopic characteristics[edit]

  • The elongated comma-shaped spores are around 8 µm by 4 µm.
  • It has irregular coralloid cheilocystidia.

Distribution, habitat & ecology[edit]

This saprobic mushroom grows generally in smaller or larger clumps on leaves or needles in deciduous or coniferous woods and may be found from May to December.[14]

It is common throughout Europe, and has also been reported from a few sites in America and Japan.[9]

Human impact[edit]

This fungus is generally regarded as inedible, mainly because of its peppery or acrid taste, and has little human impact. However, according to one Spanish web site it may be dried, ground up, and used as a condiment.[5] One 1948 paper states that this species generates hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in detectable amounts, suggesting that it is poisonous. However the same paper lists other mushrooms normally considered edible, such as Infundibulicybe geotropa, as having the same characteristic, so it is difficult to know how much significance to attribute to this observation.[15]


  1. ^ Roger Phillips (1981). The Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and Europe. Book Club Associates. p. 57. 
  2. ^ "Gymnopus peronatus (Bolton) Gray - Wood Woollyfoot". First Nature. Pat O'Reilly. Retrieved 2017-04-28. 
  3. ^ James Bolton (1788). An history of fungusses, growing about Halifax. 2. Halifax: James Bolton. p. 58. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.5394. 
  4. ^ Samuel Frederick Gray (1821). A natural arrangement of British plants ... 1. London: Baldwin, Craddock & Joy. p. 607. 
  5. ^ a b "Gymnopus peronatus". Asociación Micológica El Royo (in Spanish). Asociación Micológica El Royo. Retrieved 2017-04-28. 
  6. ^ a b Knudsen, H.; Vesterholt, J., eds. (2008). Funga Nordica Agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. p. 300. ISBN 978-87-983961-3-0. 
  7. ^ See the WP Collybia page for full details. The most important reference is Antonín V, Halling RE, Noordeloos ME (1997). "Generic concepts within the groups Marasmius and Collybia sensu lato". Mycotaxon. 63: 359–68. 
  8. ^ "Gymnopus peronatus page". Species Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2017-04-02. 
  9. ^ a b See the Global Biodiversity Information Facility page, which provides hyperlinks to records with geographical location.
  10. ^ "peronatus". Wiktionary. Wikimedia. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 
  11. ^ Marcel Bon (1987). The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-Western Europe. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 178. ISBN 0-340-39935-X. 
  12. ^ Courtecuisse, R.; Duhem, B. (2013). Champignons de France et d'Europe (in French). Delachaux et Niestlé. p. 260. ISBN 978-2-603-02038-8.  Also available in English.
  13. ^ Meinhard Moser (1983). Keys to Agarics and Boleti. Translated by Simon Plant. 15a Eccleston Square, London: Roger Phillips. p. 152. ISBN 0-9508486-0-3. 
  14. ^ "Gymnopus peronatus" (PDF). Champignons de Charente-Maritime, Charente et Deux-Sèvres (in French). Patrice Tanchaud. Retrieved 2017-04-28. 
  15. ^ Bach, Erna (1948). "Marasmius peronatus and Marasmius perforans form hydrocyanic acid" (PDF). Friesia. 3 (5): 377–378.