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French Hainaut is one of two areas in France that form the département du Nord. It corresponds roughly with the Arrondissement of Avesnes-sur-Helpe, Arrondissement of Cambrai and Arrondissement of Valenciennes.
Until the 17th century it was an integral part of the County of Hainaut, ruled by the Burgundians and later the Habsburgs. However, in a series of wars between France and Spain, the southern part of Hainaut was conquered by France, as were French Flanders and the Bishopric of Cambrai. Together with the former Bishopric of Cambrai, it formed the French province of Flandre before the French Revolution.