Hairy root culture
Hairy root culture, also called transformed root culture, is a type of plant tissue culture that is used to study plant metabolic processes or to produce valuable secondary metabolites or recombinant proteins, often with plant genetic engineering.
A naturally occurring soil bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes that contains root-inducing plasmids (also called Ri plasmids) can infect plant roots and cause them to produce a food source for the bacterium, opines, and to grow abnormally. The abnormal roots are particularly easy to culture in artificial media because hormones are not needed in contrast to adventitious roots, and they are neoplastic, with indefinite growth. The neoplastic roots produced by A. rhizogenes infection have a high growth rate (compared to untransformed adventitious roots), as well as genetic and biochemical stability.
Some of the applied research on utilization of hairy root cultures has been and is conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. Other labs working on hairy roots are the phytotechnology lab of Amiens University and the Arkansas Biosciences Institute.
So far, the only company producing hairy root cultures at an industrial scale is a Belgian company called Green2Chem that recently acquired all assets (including technology, patent and clones) from the ex-company Rootec. There also is a French company called Root Lines Technology SAS, which uses genetically modified hairy root cultures.
Further applications include detailed studies of fundamental molecular, genetic and biochemical aspects of genetic transformation and of hairy root induction.
Genetically transformed cultures
The Ri plasmids can be engineered to also contain T-DNA, used for genetic transformation (biotransformation) of the plant cells. The resulting genetically transformed root cultures can produce high levels of secondary metabolites, comparable or even higher than those of intact plants.
Use in plant propagation
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2010)|
- Crown gall, a plant disease with similar uses caused by a related bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens
- Sévon and Oksman (October 2002). "Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation: root cultures as a source of alkaloids.". Planta Med. 68 (10): 859–68. doi:10.1055/s-2002-34924.
- Shanks JV, Morgan J (April 1999). "Plant 'hairy root' culture". Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 10 (2): 151–5. doi:10.1016/S0958-1669(99)80026-3. PMID 10209145.
- Guillon S, Tremouillaux-Guiller J, Pati PK, Rideau M, Gantet P (2006). "Hairy root research: recent scenario and exciting prospects". Curr Opin Plant Biol. 9: 341–346. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2006.03.008. PMID 16616871.
- Häkkinen S; et al. (August 2005). "Enhanced secretion of tropane alkaloids in Nicotiana tabacum hairy roots expressing heterologous hyoscyamine-6beta-hydroxylase.". J. Exp. Bot. 56 (420): 2611–8. doi:10.1093/jxb/eri253.
- Ritala A; et al. (April 2014). "Evaluation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots for the production of geraniol, the first committed step in terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway.". J. Biotechnol. 176. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2014.01.031.
- Georgiev M; Ludwig-Müller J; Bley Th (2010). "Hairy root culture: Copying Nature in New Bioprocesses (chapter 10)". In R Arora. Medicinal Plant Biotechnology. Delhi: The Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Applied Sciences. ISBN 978-1-84593-678-5.
- Georgiev M; Pavlov A; Bley Th (2007). "Hairy root type plant in vitro systems as sources of bioactive substances". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 74 (6): 1175–1185. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0856-5. PMID 17294182.