He studied medicine in Vienna, and as a student he was a demonstrator under Josef Hyrtl and Karl von Rokitansky. In 1868 he received his medical doctorate, and remained in Vienna as an assistant to Rokitansky. In 1873 he obtained his habilitation, and in 1877 attained the chair of pathology at the University of Graz. Five years later he returned to the University of Vienna as chair of pathology, a position he kept until his death. One of his better known students was Richard Paltauf (1858–1924).
In 1893 he provided a comprehensive description of lymphosarcoma, and was able to differentiate it from other disease such as pseudoleukemia and some forms of Hodgkin's disease. Historically, another name for lymphosarcoma was "Kundrat's disease". In the field of gynecology, with George Julius Engelmann, he was the first to document the cyclical changes that take place in the endometrium.
- Ueber lympho-sarkomatosis. Wien. kim. Wschr. 6: 211-213, 234-239, 1893.
- Untersuchungen des menschlichen Endometriums; H. Kundrat (1845–1893) und G.J. Engelmann (1847–1903).
-  Online ICD9/ICD9CM codes
-  The American journal of obstetrics and diseases of women and children
- C Stechele (1902). "Maximilian Liebenwein". Die Graphischen Künste: 1–4.
- Menches, Sonja (2007). Nähere Betrachtungen zu Leben und Werk von Maximilian Liebenwein (1869–1926) im Zeitraum 1895 – 1914 [Further Reflections on the life and work of Maximilian Liebenwein (1869–1926) in the period 1895–1914.] (master's thesis). University of Vienna.
- American Cancer Society History of Lymphosarcoma]
-  The Boston medical and surgical journal by Massachusetts Medical Society, New England Surgical Society (obituary)
-  Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas By Peter M. Mauch, et al.
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