Sarhāsta Asām (Pali)
• c. 1292
|Phraya Yi Ba (last)|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
Hariphunchai or Haribhunjaya (from Thai: หริภุญชัย, in turn from Pali: Haribhuñjaya) was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area. Its capital was at Lamphun, which at the time was also called Hariphunchai.:77 In 1292 the city was besieged and captured by Mangrai of the Thai kingdom of Lan Na.:208
According to the Camadevivamsa and "Jinakalamali" chronicles, the city was founded by a hermit named Suthep in 629 AD, and the Mon ruler of Lavo Kingdom (present-day Lopburi) sent his daughter Jamadevi to become its first queen. However, this date is now considered as too early, and the actual beginning is placed at around 750 AD. At that time, most of what is now central Thailand was under the rule of various Mon city states, known collectively as the Dvaravati kingdom. Queen Jamadevi gave birth to twins, the older succeeding her as the ruler of Lamphun, and the younger becoming ruler of neighboring Lampang.
Flourishing and downfall
The kingdom under King Adityaraja, came into conflict with the Khmers in the twelfth century. Lamphun inscriptions from 1213, 1218, and 1219, mention King Sabbadhisiddhi endowing Buddhist monuments.:195
The chronicles say that the Khmer unsuccessfully besieged Hariphunchai several times during the 11th century. It is not clear if the chronicles describe actual or legendary events, but the other Dvaravati Mon kingdoms did in fact fall to the Khmers at this time. The early 13th century was a golden time for Hariphunchai, as the chronicles talk only about religious activities or constructing buildings, not about wars. Nevertheless, Hariphunchai was besieged in 1292 by the Lan Na king Mangrai, who incorporated it into his Lan Na ("One Million Rice Fields") kingdom. The plan set up by Mangrai to overpower Hariphunchai began by dispatching Ai Fa (Thai: อ้ายฟ้า) on an espionage mission to create chaos in Hariphunchai. Ai Fa managed to spread discontent among the population, which weakened Hariphunchai and made it possible for Mangrai to take the kingdom over.:38 Phraya Yi Ba, the last king of Hariphunchai, was forced to flee south to Lampang.:208–209
List of rulers
Names of monarchs of the Hariphunchai kingdom according to Tamnan Hariphunchai (History of Kingdom of Hariphunchai):
- Camadevi, Queen
- Uchitajakraphad king of Lavo
- Jakaphadiraj, King of Atikuyaburi
- Maharaj, King of Lampang
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