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Harvey Leibenstein (1922 – February 28, 1994) was a Ukrainian-born American Jewish economist. One of his most important contributions to economics was the concept of x-efficiency.
In economics, x-efficiency is the effectiveness with which a given set of inputs are used to produce outputs. If a firm is producing the maximum output it can, given the resources it employs, such as men and machinery, and the best technology available, it is said to be technical-efficient. x-inefficiency occurs when technical-efficiency is not achieved. The concept of x-efficiency was introduced by Harvey Leibenstein in his paper Allocative efficiency v. "x-efficiency" in American Economic Review 1966.
The concept of x-efficiency is also used in the theory of
Selected Publications [ edit ]
1950, "Bandwagon, Snob and Veblen Effects in the Theory of Consumer Demand",
, Vol.64 No.2 : Page 183-207 Quarterly Journal of Economics 1954,
A Theory of Economic-Demographic Development, Foreword by Frank Notestein, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press 1966, Allocative Efficiency vs. "X-Efficiency",
, Vol. LVI., June 1966 The American Economic Review 1968, Entrepreneurship and Development,
The American Economic Review, 58(2):72–83 1969, Organizational or Frictional Equilibria,
The , Vol. LXXXIII, No. 4, November 1969. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1974, Socio-economic Fertility Theories and Their Relevance to Population Policy,
International Labour Review, May/June 1974. 1974, An Interpretation of the Economic Theory of Fertility,
, Vol. XII, No. 2, June 1974. Journal of Economic Literature 1975, The Economic Theory of Fertility Decline,
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol LXXXIX, No. 1, February 1975. 1976, Beyond Economic Man, Cambridge: Harvard: University Press
1978, General X-Efficiency Theory and Economic Development, New York: Oxford University Press
1978, "'X-inefficiency Exists: A Reply to an Exorcist," American Economic Review, 68 (1978): 208
1979, "A Branch of Economics Is Missing: Micro-Micro Theory,"
, 17: 477-502 Journal of Economic Literature 1979, “The General X-Efficiency Paradigm and the Role of the Entrepreneur”. in:
Mario Rizzo (ed.), Time, Uncertainty, and Disequilibrium. Lexington: Heath 1979, 127-139 1982, “The Prisoners’s Dilemma in the Invisible Hand: An Analysis of Intrafirm Productivity.”
American Economic Review, (Papers and Proceedings) 72, no. 2 (May): 92–7 1983, "Property Rights and X-Efficiency: Comment."
American Economic Review, 83: 831-42.
External links [ edit ]