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Hatchetfish may refer to three groups of fishes:

  • Marine hatchetfishes, small deep-sea bioluminescent fishes (Stomiiformes) of the family Sternoptychidae, subfamily Sternoptychinae.
  • Freshwater hatchetfishes, small South and Central American characins of the family Gasteropelecidae.
  • Triportheus, the elongate hatchetfish, small South American freshwater characins of the family Triporthidae.