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For other uses, see Hedong (disambiguation).
Traditional Chinese 河東
Simplified Chinese 河东
Literal meaning East of the River
Hedong Commandery
Traditional Chinese 河東
Simplified Chinese 河东
Hedong Circuit
Traditional Chinese 河東 or 河東
Simplified Chinese 河东 or 河东

Hedong was the name of a geographical area in Chinese history, used intermittently from the Warring States period to 1928. The name literally means "East of the River", and denotes the eastern part of the "middle reaches" of the Yellow River (when the river goes southward from Inner Mongolia to Henan).

Before the Tang dynasty (618–907), Hedong generally referred to the area in modern southwestern Shanxi around Yuncheng. During the Tang dynasty, Hedong became larger in size, corresponding to roughly the entire modern Shanxi province.

Warring States period, Qin dynasty, Han dynasty[edit]

Hedong Commandery was created by the State of Wei during the Warring States period (c. 475 BC – 221 BC) in Anyi District (安邑縣, in modern Xia County, Shanxi). Its administrative area was east of the Yellow River, west of the Qin River, and south of the Huo Mountains.

Jin dynasty[edit]

In 418 AD, the Jin dynasty moved the administrative seat of Hedong Commandery to Puban District (蒲坂縣, in modern Yongji, Shanxi).

Tang dynasty[edit]

In 627, during Emperor Taizong of Tang's reign, the Hedong Circuit was established as one of the 10 circuits of the newly-founded Tang Empire. The area was defined as "East of the Yellow River and West of the Taihang Mountains", including modern Shanxi and northwestern Hebei.

In early-8th century, during Emperor Xuanzong of Tang's reign, the administrative capital of Hedong Circuit was set in Puzhou (Pu Prefecture).

The 18 prefectures under the administration of Hedong Circuit included:

Five Dynasties period[edit]

Further information: Jin (Later Tang precursor) and Northern Han

Song dynasty[edit]

In 979, the Song dynasty under Emperor Taizong of Song annexed Northern Han. In 997, the former Northern Han territory officially became Hedong Route (河東路), with its administrative seat at Bingzhou (or Taiyuan).

In 1126, Hedong fell to the Jin dynasty conquest. In 1128, Jin dynasty split Hedong into 2 circuits, Hedong North (河東北) and Hedong South (河東南).

Ming dynasty[edit]

The Ming dynasty (1368–1644) recreated the Hedong Circuit under Shanxi Province. The administrative seat was again Puzhou.

Qing dynasty[edit]

In the Qing dynasty, Hedong administered 6 prefectures and subprefectures: Puzhou, Pingyang, Jiezhou, Xizhou, Huozhou and Jiangzhou.

During the reign of Jiaqing Emperor (1760–1820), the administrative seat was moved to Yuncheng.

Republic of China[edit]

In 1912, Hedong Circuit was abolished. It was reinstated in 1914, and abolished again in 1928.