Henry Dodson (21 April 1828 – 8 May 1892) was a brewer and a 19th-century Member of Parliament from Marlborough, New Zealand.
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As a youth, he emigrated to Halifax in Nova Scotia, Canada, to join a brother. Together, they went to Victoria, Australia and joined the Victorian gold rush. After that, he came to Nelson, New Zealand and joined his brother Joseph Dodson in his brewery business. He married Emma Snow (born 6 January 1830) on 10 December 1857 at Nelson. He came to Blenheim in the late 1850s and set up a brewery in that town.
Dodson was a member of the Marlborough Provincial Council for three different electorates from 1860–1863, 1866–1870, and 1874–1875. In the provincial council, he was the head of the Blenheim party for many years, and they quarrelled against the Picton party. He was Mayor of Blenheim for four one-year terms (1870–1871 and 1883–1884). He represented the Wairau electorate from 1881 to 1890, when he retired. In 1881, he beat the incumbent, Arthur Seymour. He was challenged by Joseph Ward in 1884. In the 1887 election, he was challenged by a former Mayor of Blenheim, George Henderson, and Sutherland John Macalister.
- "Obituary". The Marlborough Express. XXVIII (109). 9 May 1892. p. 3. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Scholefield, Guy, ed. (1940). A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography : A–L (PDF). I. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. p. 213. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Married". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. XVI. 12 December 1857. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. p. 193. OCLC 154283103.
- Cooper, G. S. (1882). Votes Recorded for Each Candidate. Government Printer. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Cooper, G. S. (1884). The General Election, 1884. National Library. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Mr. Sutherland John Maclister[sic]". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Cooper, G. S. (1887). The General Election, 1887. National Library. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "The Marlborough Express". The Marlborough Express. XIX (141). 30 June 1883. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
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| Member of Parliament for Wairau