The Heptageniidae (synonym: Ecdyonuridae) are a family of mayflies with over 500 described species mainly distributed in the Holarctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical regions, and also present in the Central American Tropics and extreme northern South America. These are generally rather small mayflies with three long tails. The wings are usually clear with prominent venation although species with variegated wings are known. As in most mayflies, the males have large compound eyes, but not divided into upper and lower parts (the group is sometimes referred to as flat-headed mayflies).
Heptageniids breed mainly in fast-flowing streams (an alternative common name is stream mayflies), but some species use still waters. The nymphs have a flattened shape and are usually dark in colour. They use a wide range of food sources with herbivorous, scavenging, and predatory species known.
^Wang, T.-Q; MCCafferty W.P. (March 2004). "Heptageniidae (Ephemeroptera) of the World. Part I: Phylogenetic Higher Classification". Transactions of the American Entomological Society (1890-)130 (1): 11–45. JSTOR25078834.
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McGavin, George C. (2005). Insects and Spiders. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN1-4053-0596-7.