|Died||1658 (aged 76–77)|
Sir Hercules Underhill (1581–1658) was the son of William Underhill of Warwickshire, owner of New Place in Stratford-Upon-Avon. William Underhill sold New Place to William Shakespeare in 1597, and Hercules Underhill confirmed the sale in 1602.
Hercules Underhill, born in 1581, was the second son of William Underhill (d.1597) and Mary Underhill (buried 10 November 1590), daughter of Thomas Underhill of Ettington, Warwickshire. He had five brothers and three sisters:
- Fulke Underhill (baptized 28 January 1578, d. 21 March 1599).
- Timothy Underhill (d.1658) of Idlicote.
- Ludowick (or Lewis) Underhill, citizen and haberdasher of London, living 1607.
- William Underhill (baptized 6 March 1588, d. 1656) of Ludlow, who married Hester Parker (1601–1641), daughter of Samuel Parker of Ludlow, mercer.
- Simon Underhill of Idlicote, (baptized 16 November 1589, d.1664), who married Elizabeth Hall (1585–1638), widow of Walter Savage (d.1622) of Broadway, and daughter of Richard Hall of Idlicote.
- Dorothy Underhill (baptized 18 May 1579).
- Elizabeth Underhill (baptized 10 November 1585, buried 25 November 1585).
- Valentine Underhill (baptized 17 February 1587), who married John Bolt.
Hercules Underhill's paternal grandparents were William Underhill (d. 31 March 1570) and Ursula Congreve (d. 13 May 1561), youngest daughter of John Congreve, esquire, of Stretton, Staffordshire; they had one son, William Underhill (d.1597), and four daughters. After Ursula Congreve's death, William Underhill married Dorothy Hatton (d.1569), widow of Richard Newport of Hunningham, Warwickshire, and sister of Sir Christopher Hatton, by whom he had no issue.
Hercules Underhill's paternal grandfather, William Underhill (c.1523 – 31 March 1570), was an Inner Temple lawyer and clerk of assizes at Warwick, and a substantial property holder in Warwickshire. Among his holdings was the manor of Idlicote, which he purchased from Lodovic Greville. He also held a 21-year lease on the manor of Newbold Revel from Thomas Throckmorton. In 1567 he purchased New Place in Stratford upon Avon from William Bott, agent of William Clopton, esquire. In addition to these properties he held the manors of Loxley and Barton-on-the-Heath, 'together with other houses and lands in Stratford, Hollington, Hardwick, Meriden, Haselor, Drayton and Easinghall'.
William Underhill died 31 March 1570, and was buried at Nether Ettington, where he and his first wife are commemorated by a marble monument. In his will he directed that his estates were not to be alienated by his heir save in circumstances of 'pressing need'. His three daughters were given marriage portions of five hundred pounds and a silver spoon apiece. His second daughter was given the wedding ring which had belonged to her stepmother, Dorothy Hatton, and his youngest daughter was given one of her mother Ursula Congreve's rings.
William Underhill (d.1597), his only son and heir, was sixteen years of age at his father's death in 1570, and became a ward of the crown. His wardship was purchased in 1571 by his stepmother Dorothy's Hatton's brother, Sir Christopher Hatton.
When he came of age in about 1575, William Underhill inherited his father's estates. Shortly thereafter he obtained licence to sell the manor of Loxley to Thomas Underhill, one of his cousins, and about that time married Mary Underhill (d.1590), another cousin. In 1579 he was imprisoned for recusancy, 'but being able to give an explanation to Burghley, was soon released'. In 1581, by reason of pressing financial circumstances, he was granted licence to alienate lands in Hollington and Meriden. In 1587 he was appointed escheator for Warwickshire and Leicestershire. In 1590 his wife, Mary, died. She was buried at Idlicote, and after her death he settled his estates in trust on his eldest son and heir, Fulke Underhill.
In Easter term 1597 he sold New Place to William Shakespeare for £60 by final concord dated 4 May (see Shakespeare Birthplace Trust MS, Item 1, Case 8). At the time of the sale the property consisted of one messuage, two barns and two gardens with their appurtenances.
In July 1597 he was poisoned at Fillongley near Coventry, and on 6 July made a nuncupative will, naming as executors George Shirley and Thomas Shirley of Staunton Harold, Leicestershire. He left all his lands to his eldest son, Fulke Underhill, £200 apiece to each of his younger sons, and £500 apiece to his daughters Dorothy and Valentine. He died 7 July, and was buried with his wife at Idlicote.
According to Stopes, Fulke Underhill died without issue in May 1598, while still under age, leaving his brother Hercules as his heir, and was not at first suspected of having poisoned his father; however "either through his own confession or the evidence of others, his guilt afterwards became known", and in 1602 the Court of Exchequer appointed a commission to "obtain an account of the possessions of Fulke Underhill of Fillongley, county Warwick, felon, who had taken the life of his father, William Underhill, by poison". According to Schoenbaum, however, he was hanged at Warwick in 1599 for poisoning his father, and attainted for felony, whereby his estates escheated to the crown, which regranted them to Hercules Underhill when he came of age in 1602. In Michaelmas term 1602, Hercules Underhill confirmed the sale of New Place to William Shakespeare by final concord; in order to obtain clear title, Shakespeare paid a fee equal to one quarter of the yearly value of the property, "the peculiar circumstances of the case causing some doubt on the validity of the original purchase".
Underhill was knighted by James I at Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire, on 6 September 1617, and was appointed High Sheriff of Warwickshire in 1625. During the English Civil War he was a Royalist, and having been accused of being a 'Popish recusant', was forced to compound his estates for the sum of £1177.
He married Bridget Carleton, sister of Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester, and daughter of Anthony Carleton by his second wife, Joyce Goodwin. There are said to have been no surviving issue of the marriage.
- Stopes 1907, p. 232.
- Shirley 1865, p. 132.
- Fetherston 1877, pp. 30–1, 45.
- Fetherston 1877, pp. 30–1.
- Morrison 1932, p. 147.
- Bearman 2012, p. 473.
- Shirley 1865, p. 130.
- Stopes 1907, pp. 227–8.
- Stopes 1907, pp. 228–30.
- Stopes 1907, pp. 229–30.
- Stopes 1907, pp. 230–31.
- Stopes 1907, p. 231.
- Schoenbaum 1977, p. 234.
- Schoenbaum 1989, p. 17.
- 'Final Concord Between William Shakespeare and Hercules Underhill', World Digital Library Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Shaw 1906, p. 166.
- Kittermaster 1866, p. 91.
- Turner 1871, p. 124.
- McClure 1939, pp. 140, 173, 241, 260–1, 266, 415, 579.
- Williams 1861, p. xiii.
- Bearman, Robert (Winter 2012). Shakespeare Quarterly 63 (4). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 465–86. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Fetherston, John, ed. (1877). The Visitation of the County of Warwick in the year 1619 XII. London: Harleian Society. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- McClure, Norman Egbert (1939). The Letters of John Chamberlain I. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
- Kittermaster, Frederick W. (1866). Warwickshire Arms and Lineages Compiled From the Heralds’ Visitations and Ancient MSS.. London: William MacIntosh. p. 91. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Morrison, John Harold (1932). The Underhills of Warwickshire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Schoenbaum, Samuel (1989). "Shakespeare: Text, Subtext and Context: All That is Known Concerning Shakespeare". In Dotterer, Ronald, ed. Susquehanna University Studies (Selingrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press) 13: 15–30.
- Schoenbaum, Samuel (1977). William Shakespeare: A Compact Documentary Life. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 234.
- Shaw, William A. (1906). The Knights of England II. London: Sherratt and Hughes. p. 166. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Shirley, E.P. (1865). "The Underhills of Warwickshire". The Herald and Genealogist (London: J.G. Nichols and R.C. Nichols): 127–32.
- Stopes, Charlotte Carmichael (1907). Shakespeare's Warwickshire Contemporaries. Stratford upon Avon: Shakespeare Head Press. pp. 227–32. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Turner, William Henry, ed. (1871). The Visitations of the County of Oxford V. London: Harleian Society. pp. 122–5, 215. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Williams, Sarah, ed. (1861). Letters Written by John Chamberlain During the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Westminster: J.B. Nichols and Sons. p. xiii.
- Will of William Underhill, gentleman, of Newbold Revel, Warwickshire, proved 10 April 1570, PROB 11/52/126, National Archives Retrieved 20 December 2013
- Will of William Underhill of Idlicote, Warwickshire, proved 9 August 1597, PROB 11/90/176, National Archives Retrieved 20 December 2013
- Will of Dorothy Underhill, proved 28 January 1570, PROB 11/52/36, National Archives Retrieved 20 December 2013
- Inquisition as to lands and goods of Fulke Underhill, attainted, E 178/7358, National Archives Retrieved 20 December 2013
- William Nichols v Hercules Underhill re messuage in Idlicote, Warwickshire, C 2/JasI/N2/36, National Archives Retrieved 20 December 2013
- Walter Clarke and Bartholomew Clarke v Hercules Underhill, Thomas Underhill and John Hathway re messuage and lands of late monastery of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, C 2/JasI/C9/22, National Archives Retrieved 20 December 2013
- 'A Major Purchase in Stratford, 1597', Internet Shakespeare Editions Retrieved 20 December 2013
- Birch, Thomas, The court and times of James the first, Volume 2, p. 40