Holtfreter's solution

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Holtfreter's solution (Holtfreter's medium) is a balanced salt solution that was developed by the developmental biologist Johannes Holtfreter for studying amphibian embryos and to reduce bacterial infections.[1] As a specialised aqueous solution, it finds use in aquaria to prevent infections for early stage amphibians, where it is typically mixed with soft tap water.[2][3] Amphibians such as axolotls find a hard water solution more preferable.[citation needed]


Molarity of the component salts are as follows:

NaCl 0.059 M
KCl 0.00067 M
CaCl2 0.00076 M
NaHCO3 0.0024 M


  1. ^ "Johannes Holtfreter, 1901—1992. A Biographical Memoir by John Gerhart" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences (USA). 
  2. ^ "Axolotls - Requirements & Water Conditions in Captivity". Axolotl.org. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  3. ^ "Indiana University Axolotl Colony". Ambystoma.org. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 


  • Armstrong, J.B., Duhon, S.T., and Malacinski, G.M. (1989) "Raising the axolotl in captivity". In J. B. Armstrong and G. M. Malacinski (eds.) Developmental Biology of the Axolotl. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 220-227.