Hu Washizu principle

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In continuum mechanics, and in particular in finite element analysis, the Hu-Washizu principle is a variational principle which says that the action

\int_{V^e} \left[ \frac{1}{2} \epsilon^T C \epsilon - \sigma^T \epsilon + \sigma^T (\nabla u) - \bar{p}^T u \right] dV - \int_{S_\sigma^e} \bar{T}^T u\ dS

is stationary, where C is the elastic stiffness tensor. The Hu-Washizu principle is used to develop mixed finite element methods.[1] The principle is named after Hu Haichang and K. Washizu.


  1. ^ Jihuan, He (June 1997). "Equivalent theorem of Hellinger-Reissner and Hu-Washizu variational principles". Journal of Shanghai University (Shanghai University Press) 1 (1). ISSN 1007-6417. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 

Further reading[edit]

  • K. Washizu: Variational Methods in Elasticity & Plasticity, Pergamon Press, New York, 3rd edition (1982)
  • O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor, J. Z. Zhu : The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals, Butterworth-Heinemann, (2005).

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