Hu Washizu principle

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In continuum mechanics, and in particular in finite element analysis, the Hu-Washizu principle is a variational principle which says that the action

is stationary, where is the elastic stiffness tensor. The Hu-Washizu principle is used to develop mixed finite element methods.[1] The principle is named after Hu Haichang and K. Washizu.


  1. ^ Jihuan, He (June 1997). "Equivalent theorem of Hellinger-Reissner and Hu-Washizu variational principles". Journal of Shanghai University. Shanghai University Press. 1 (1). ISSN 1007-6417. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 

Further reading[edit]

  • K. Washizu: Variational Methods in Elasticity & Plasticity, Pergamon Press, New York, 3rd edition (1982)
  • O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor, J. Z. Zhu : The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals, Butterworth-Heinemann, (2005).