Human accelerated region 1
|Highly accelerated region 1A/1B|
|RNA type||Gene; lncRNA|
In molecular biology, Human accelerated region 1 (highly accelerated region 1, HAR1) is a segment of the human genome found on the long arm of chromosome 20. It is a Human accelerated region. It is located within a pair of overlapping long non-coding RNA genes, HAR1A (HAR1F) and HAR1B (HAR1R).
HAR1A was identified in August 2006 when human accelerated regions (HARs) were first investigated. These 49 regions represent parts of the human genome that differ significantly from highly conserved regions of our closest ancestors in terms of evolution. Many of the HARs are associated with genes known to play a role in neurodevelopment. One particularly altered region, HAR1, was found in a stretch of genome with no known protein-coding RNA sequences. Two RNA genes, HAR1F and HAR1R, were identified partly within the region. The RNA structure of HAR1A has been shown to be stable, with a secondary structure unlike those previously described.
HAR1A is active in the developing human brain between the 7th and 18th gestational weeks. It is found in the dorsal telencephalon in fetuses. In adult humans, it is found throughout the cerebellum and forebrain; it is also found in the testes. There is evidence that HAR1 is repressed by REST in individuals with Huntington's disease, perhaps contributing to the neurodegeneration associated with the disease.
- Pollard KS, Salama SR, Lambert N, Lambot MA, Coppens S, Pedersen JS, Katzman S, King B, Onodera C, Siepel A, Kern AD, Dehay C, Igel H, Ares M Jr, Vanderhaeghen P, Haussler D (2006-08-16). "An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans". Nature. 443 (7108): 167–172. doi:10.1038/nature05113. PMID 16915236. supplement
- Pollard KS, Salama SR, King B, et al. (October 2006). "Forces shaping the fastest evolving regions in the human genome". PLoS Genet. 2 (10): e168. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020168. PMC . PMID 17040131.
- Amadio JP, Walsh CA (September 2006). "Brain evolution and uniqueness in the human genome". Cell. 126 (6): 1033–5. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.007. PMID 16990130.
- Johnson R, Richter N, Jauch R, Gaughwin PM, Zuccato C, Cattaneo E, Stanton LW (2010). "The Human Accelerated Region 1 noncoding RNA is repressed by REST in Huntington's disease". Physiol Genomics. 41 (3): 269. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00019.2010. PMID 20179156.
- Beniaminov A, Westhof E, Krol A (July 2008). "Distinctive structures between chimpanzee and human in a brain noncoding RNA". RNA. 14 (7): 1270–5. doi:10.1261/rna.1054608. PMC . PMID 18511501.
- Scientists Identify Gene Difference Between Humans and Chimps, Scientific American, 17 August 2006