Hybrid arts

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"REGENERATIVE RELIQUARY" by Amy Karle, 2016 bioart sculpture of hand design 3D printed / bioprinted on microscopic level in trabecular structure out of pegda hydrogel to create scaffold for human MSC stem cell culture into bone.
Hybrid Art / BioArt "Regenerative Reliquary" by Amy Karle, 2016

Hybrid arts is a contemporary art movement in which artists work with frontier areas of science and emerging technologies. Artists work with fields such as biology, robotics, physical sciences, experimental interface technologies (such as speech, gesture, face recognition), artificial intelligence, and information visualization. They address the research in many ways such as undertaking new research agendas, visualizing results in new ways, or critiquing the social implications of the research. The worldwide community has developed new kinds of art festivals, information sources, organizations, and university programs to explore these new arts. Hybrid arts is also the name of a non profit Arts education company in the United Kingdom. Set up in 2003 after a four-year development period to create a new species of training and arts engagement provider in the cultural industries...see Hybrid:arts

Overview/ history of the term[edit]

Many artists are responding to the central role scientific and technological research plays in contemporary culture. They are going beyond merely using technological tools and gadgets (e.g. computers) in their work to engage deeply with the processes of research. They are creating revolutionary art at the frontiers of scientific research. They see art as an independent zone of research that pursues areas of science and research ignored by mainstream academic disciplines. They are developing technologies that would be rejected by the marketplace but are nonetheless culturally critical. They are pursuing inquiries that are seen as too controversial, too wacky, too improbable, too speculative for regular science and technology. Their theoretical orientation ranges from celebration of human curiosity to critique of science's arrogance. They enter into the processes in research at all stages: setting research agendas, development of research processes, visualization, interpretations of findings, and education of the public.

There has been some confusion over the last years of what to call this kind of art that crosses so many disciplines. It is descended from computer and internet art but reaches out to cover many new disciplines. Ars Electronica, which is considered one of leading world organizations concerned with experimental arts, decided three years ago to create a new category to encompass these kinds of arts. Every year they host an international competition for artists working in these experimental fields. They decided to use the name 'Hybrid Arts'. The worldwide community of artists, theorists, and journalists interested in this art are increasingly using this term. Here is a quote from their web site that offers their definition and a preliminary list of kinds of art covered.

The “Hybrid Art” category is dedicated specifically to today’s hybrid and transdisciplinary projects and approaches to media art. Primary emphasis is on the process of fusing different media and genres into new forms of artistic expression as well as the act of transcending the boundaries between art and research, art and social/political activism, art and pop culture. Jurors will be looking very closely at how dynamically the submitted work defies classification in a single one of the Prix categories of long standing.

This category is open to all types of current works in any form:

* Autonomic Installations and Artworks
* Autonomous Sculptures
* Performance and Stageprojects
* Media architectures
* Media based Interventions in public spaces
* Mechatronics / Kinetics / Robotics
* Location-based and geospatial storytelling
* Multi-user environments
* Annotation software tools
* Artificial Life
* Transgenic Art
* Software Art, Generative Art
--- Ars Electronica Website Ars Electronica Website

Many new support systems have evolved to nurture, show, and interpret this kind of art. New educational programs have been developed. Books have been written.

Sample of the research fields addressed in hybrid arts[edit]

-Genetics, Bioengineering, stem cells, proteomics
-Art and Biology of Living Systems: microorganisms, plants, animals, ecology
-Human Biology: the body, bionics, body manipulation, brain & body processes, body imaging, and medicine
-Physical Sciences: particle physics, atomic energy, geology, physics, chemistry, astronomy, space science, nanotechnology, materials science
-Kinetics, Electronics, Robotics: physical computing, ubiquitous computing, mixed reality
-Alternative Interfaces: motion, gesture, touch, facial expression, speech, wearable computing, 3-d sound, and VR -Code: algorithms, software art, genetic art, A-life, artificial intelligence
-Information Systems: databases, surveillance, RFID/barcodes, synthetic cinema, information visualization
Telecommunications: telephone, radio, telepresence, web art, mobiles, locative media

Festivals, shows, conferences related to hybrid arts[edit]

Since much of the art does not fit into historical categories such as painting or sculpture, many museums and art festivals did not show the work. Curators who were interested created new kinds of festivals, competitions, museums and shows to present the work. Examples include Ars Electronica (note especially Interactive and Hybrid priz competitions. ISEA (International symposium of Electronic Arts), V2 - DEAF (Dutch Electronic Arts Festival), VIDA - Art & Artificial Life International Competition. Ars Electronica offers a festival each year that addresses transdisciplinary themes. Both artists and scientists are invited to speak at the conferences. Recent exhibitions focused on themes such as New Sex, Simplicity and Privacy.

Organizations, information sources, art/science collaboration support, educational programs[edit]

The hybrid arts community also established organizations and information sources to promote, disseminate, and interpret these new art activities. There are hundreds of such organizations of which a few examples are offered here. The external links show where to get more information. The Journal Leonardo published by MIT Press has a 40-year history of ‘promoting and documenting work at the intersection of the arts, sciences, and technology, and… encouraging and stimulating collaboration between artists, scientists, and technologists.’ The organization also has web sites, abstract services, and collaborates with other organizations in presenting conferences. The website We Make Money Not Art covers media/research conferences, interviews artists/researchers, and discusses developments in various fields from activism and biology to surveillance and wearables.

Other organizations offer public events and facilitate the process of artists collaborating with researchers. For example, The Arts Catalyst in the UK seeks to ‘extend the practice of artists engaging with scientific processes, facilities and technologies in order to reveal and illuminate the social, political and cultural contexts that brought them into being’ through public symposia, exhibitions, and commissions. SymbioticA in Australia is an ‘artistic laboratory dedicated to the research, learning and critique of life sciences.’ It ‘provides an opportunity for researchers to pursue curiosity-based explorations free of the demands and constraints associated with the current culture of scientific research.’ The arts lab is sponsored by the medicine department of a university. Other examples include the Art and Genomics Centre(NL), the LABoral Centro de Arte y Creación Industrial (ES) and Artists in Labs (CH) program.

New forms of educational programs are being established at universities around the world. Students are expected to master topics in art, media, and research disciplines. For example, the U of Washington’s DXArts program offers a ‘creative research convergence zone for intrepid artists and scholars’ who seek to reach out beyond the arts. The Conceptual/Information Arts (CIA) is the "experimental program within the Art Department at San Francisco State University dedicated to preparing artists and media experimentors to work at the cutting edge of science and technology". Courses cover topics such as art & biology, robotics, locative media, and physical computing.

Further reading[edit]

Kac, Eduardo. Signs of Life: Bio Art and Beyond. MIT Press, 2007
Ippolito, Jon and Joline Blais: At the Edge of Art, thames & hudson, 2006 Mitchell, Robert, 2010, Bioart and the Vitality of Media, University of Washington Press, Seattle and London. Paul, Christiane. Digital Art. Thames & Hudson. 2003
Poissant, Louise and Ernestine Daubner (eds.) Art Et Biotechnologies. Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. Montreal, 2004
Popper, Frank. 2005. From Technological to Virtual Art. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007
Scott, Jill (ed). Artists in the Lab. SpringerWienNewYork, Wien, Austria, 2006.
Reichle, Ingeborg. Art in the Age of Technoscience. Genetic Engineering, Robotics, and Artificial Life in Contemporary Art SpringerWienNewYork 2009
Shanken, Edward A.. Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art Technology and Consciousness. UC Press, 2003
Sommerer, Christa & Laurent Mignonneeau (eds.) ARt @ Science. New York: Springe:, 1998
Wildevuur, Sabine E. Invisible Vision; Could Science learn from the Arts. Uitgever: Bohn, Stafleu Van Loghum, 2009
Wilson, Stephen. Art+Science Now. London: Thames & Hudson, 2010. link
Wilson, Stephen. Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science, and Technology. Cambridge:, MIT Press 2001 link

See also[edit]

External links[edit]