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"Hymenoplasty" redirects here. For the operation to correct an imperforate hymen, see Hymenotomy.
ICD-9-CM 70.76

Hymenorrhaphy or hymen reconstruction surgery is the surgical restoration of the hymen. The term comes from the Greek words hymen meaning "membrane", and raphḗ meaning "suture". It is also known as hymenoplasty, although strictly this term would also include hymenotomy.

Such procedures are not generally regarded as part of mainstream gynecology, but are available from some plastic surgery centers, particularly in the United States, South Korea and Western Europe, generally as day surgery. The normal aim is to cause bleeding during post-nuptial intercourse, which in some cultures is considered proof of virginity.[1]

Varieties of the operation[edit]

The term may cover at least three significantly different types of procedure:

  • Suturing of a tear in the hymen such as might be caused by sexual assault, soon after the assault, to facilitate healing.[citation needed]
  • A purely cosmetic procedure in which a membrane without blood supply is created, sometimes including a gelatine capsule of an artificial bloodlike substance. This operation is intended to be performed within a few days before an intended marriage.[2]
  • Use of a flap of the vaginal lining, complete with its blood supply, to create a new hymen. Patients are advised to refrain from penetrative sex for up to three months following this procedure.[citation needed]

Availability and legality[edit]

Some hymen reconstruction operations are legal in some countries, while other countries ban all hymenorrhaphy.[3]

In the United States of America, hymen restoration is available in private clinics and becoming more common.[citation needed]

In France, some of the cost is reimbursed by the state in cases of rape or trauma.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

  • Pediatrics article discusses healing of hymen injuries.
  • NewHymen.dk - information and counselling on hymen surgery in the context of tradition and family pressure.