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Munkoyo[1][2][3] or ibwatu[4] is a popular drink in rural Zambia. It is a mildly fermented drink made from pounded roots mixed with bits of maize. The mixture can be drunk immediately after it is made or allowed to ferment for several days. It is often called "sweet beer" by Zambians. It is also found in central African countries like Congo where it is used as a drink in traditional ceremonies as well as an ordinary beverage.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Keith Steinkraus (4 May 2018). Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods, Revised and Expanded. CRC Press. pp. 528–530. ISBN 978-1-351-44251-0.
  2. ^ Everlon Rigobelo (3 October 2012). Probiotics. BoD – Books on Demand. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-953-51-0776-7.
  3. ^ Françoise Malaisse (2010). How to live and survive in Zambezian open forest (Miombo ecoregion). Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux. pp. 289–295. ISBN 978-2-87016-106-7.
  4. ^ Phiri, Sydney; Schoustra, Sijmen E.; Heuvel, Joost van den; Smid, Eddy J.; Shindano, John; Linnemann, Anita (2019-10-22). "Fermented cereal-based Munkoyo beverage: Processing practices, microbial diversity and aroma compounds". PLOS ONE. 14 (10): e0223501. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1423501P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0223501. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6805097. PMID 31639127.