Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipfuscinosis
Classification and external resources
OMIM 256730
DiseasesDB 31533
MeSH D009472

Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (INCL) or Santavuori disease[1] is a form of NCL and inherited as a recessive autosomal genetic trait. The disorder is progressive, degenerative and fatal, extremely rare worldwide – with approximately 60 official cases reported by 1982,[2] perhaps 100 sufferers in total today[citation needed] – but relatively common in Finland due to the local founder effect.


It has been associated with palmitoyl-protein thioesterase.[3]


The development of children born with INCL is normal for the first 8–18 months, but will then flounder and start to regress both physically and mentally. Motor skills and speech are lost, and optic atrophy causes blindness. A variety of neurological symptoms, such as epilepsy and myoclonic seizures, appear. The senses of hearing and touch remain unaffected. The average lifespan of an INCL child is 9–11 years.


Treatment is limited. Drugs can alleviate the symptoms, such as sleep difficulties and epilepsy. Physiotherapy helps affected children retain the ability to remain upright for as long as possible, and prevents some of the pain.

Recent attempts to treat INCL with cystagon have been unsuccessful.

See also[edit]

  • FAIDD (The Finnish Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities)


  1. ^ Santavuori P, Haltia M, Rapola J (October 1974). "Infantile type of so-called neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis". Dev Med Child Neurol. 16 (5): 644–53. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1974.tb04183.x. PMID 4371326. 
  2. ^ Baumann RJ, Markesbery WR (November 1982). "Santavuori disease: diagnosis by leukocyte ultrastructure". Neurology. 32 (11): 1277–81. doi:10.1212/wnl.32.11.1277. PMID 6890163. 
  3. ^ Voznyi YV, Keulemans JL, Mancini GM, et al. (June 1999). "A new simple enzyme assay for pre- and postnatal diagnosis of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) and its variants". J. Med. Genet. 36 (6): 471–4. doi:10.1136/jmg.36.6.471. PMC 1734393Freely accessible. PMID 10874636. 

External links[edit]