International Women's Sports Federation
The Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) – or, in English, the International Women's Sports Federation – was founded in October 1921 because of the unwillingness of existing sports organisations, such as the International Olympic Committee and the International Amateur Athletics Federation, to let women compete in sports, particularly at an international level.
Between 1922 and 1934, it organised the Women's World Games on four occasions (I. 1922, II. 1926, III. 1930 and IV. 1934). Although the FSFI collapsed in about 1936 without having achieved most of its goals, its activities, and the potential threat it posed to the IOC and IAAF, led to the inclusion of women's athletics events in the Olympic Games from 1928 onwards and the organisation of women's athletics championships at international level by the IAAF.
- Leigh, Mary H.; Bonin, Thérèse M. (1977). "The Pioneering Role Of Madame Alice Milliat and the FSFI in Establishing International Trade and Field Competition for Women" (PDF). Journal of Sport History (North American Society for Sport History) 4 (1): 72–83. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Quintillan, Ghislaine (February–March 2000). "Alice Milliat and the Women's Games" (PDF). Olympic Review (International Olympic Committee) (XXVI-31): 27–28. ISSN 0251-3498. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Wamsley, Kevin B.; Schultz, Guy (September 2000). "Rogues and Bedfellows: The IOC and the Incorporation of the FSFI" (PDF). Bridging Three Centuries: Intellectual Crossroads and the Modern Olympic Movement. The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada: International Centre for Olympic Studies. pp. 113–118. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
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