Isotropic formulations

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Isotropic formulations are thermodynamically stable microemulsions possessing lyotropic liquid crystal properties.[1] They inhabit a state of matter and physical behaviour somewhere between conventional liquids and that of solid crystals.[2] Isotropic formulations are amphiphillic, exhibiting selective synchronicity with both the water and lipid phases of the substrate to which they are applied.[3] Most recently, isotropic formulations have been used extensively in dermatology for drug delivery.[4]


While it is well established that the skin provides an ideal site for the administration of local and systemic drugs, it presents a formidable barrier to the permeation of most substances.[5] Isotropic formulations have been used to deliver drugs locally and systemically via the skin appendages, intercellular and transcellular routes.[6]


  1. ^ Leslie FM. “Contiuum Theory for Nematic Liquid Crystals Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics.” 1992. 4 (3): 167 [1]
  2. ^ Ghosh SK. “A Model for the Orientational Order in Liquid Crystals.” Il Nuovo Cimento D 1984 4 (3): 229 [2]
  3. ^ Chen C, Han D, Cai C, Tang X. “An Overview of Liposome Lyopholisation and its Future Potential Journal of Controlled Release.” 2010; 142:299-311 [3]
  4. ^ Gregoriadis G. “Lipsomes in Drug Delivery.” Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993; [4]
  5. ^ Landman L. “The Epidermal Permeability Barrier.” Anat Embryol (Berl) 1988; 178:1-13 [5]
  6. ^ Harada K. Murakami T. Yata N et al. “Role of Intercellular Lipids in Stratum Corneum in the Percutaneous Permeation of Drugs.” J Invest Dermatol 1992; 9 99: 278-282 [6]