Japanese M-1 cipher machine

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The Japanese M-1 cipher machine was a mechanical device the Japanese used for performing cryptography sometime during the 1930s. More specifically it was used by naval attaches. The US called it the ORANGE machine.

Cryptographically it is similar to the Red cipher; it was broken by Agnes Driscoll (Madame X).[1]


  1. ^ Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century. Editor:Christopher H. Sterling. ABC-CLIO. 2008. p. 127. ISBN 9781851097326.