Johann Christian Reil
|Died||22 November 1813 (aged 54)|
Halle an der Saale, Kingdom of Prussia
|Institutions||University of Halle|
Humboldt University of Berlin
Johann Christian Reil (20 February 1759 – 22 November 1813) was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist. He coined the term psychiatry – Psychiatrie in German – in 1808.
Reil was one of five children, and was the son of a Lutheran pastor in Northwest Germany. He married Johanna Wilhelmine Leveaux in October, 1788. Together they had two sons and four daughters.
Medical conditions and anatomical features named after him include Reil's finger (later called digitus mortuus or Raynaud syndrome) and the Islands of Reil in the cerebral cortex. In 1809, he was the first to describe the white fibre tract now called the arcuate fasciculus. He is frequently and erroneously credited with discovering the locus coeruleus, which was first described by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr.
Between 1779 and 1780, Reil became acquainted with the scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach while Reil was studying medicine in Göttingen. From 1788 to 1810, Reil worked in a hospital in Halle, Germany. There he developed a medical program based heavily on Friedrich Schelling's Naturphilosophie. In 1795, Reil established the first journal of physiology written in German, the Archiv für die Physiologie. In 1810 he became one of the first professors of psychiatry after being appointed professor of medicine in Berlin.
Reil used the term 'Psychiaterie' in a short-lived journal he set up with J.C. Hoffbauer, titled Beyträge zur Beförderung einer Kurmethode auf psychischem Wege (1808: 169). He argued that there should not only be a branch of medicine (psychische Medizin) or of theology or penal practice, but a discipline in its own right with trained practitioners. He also sought to publicize the plight of the insane within asylums and to develop a psychical method of treatment, consistent with the moral treatment movement of the times. He was critical of Frenchman Philippe Pinel, however. Reil was mainly theoretical, with little direct clinical experience, in contrast with Pinel. Reil is considered a writer within the German Romantic context, and his 1803 work Rhapsodien uber die Anwendung der psychischen Kurmethode auf Geisteszerrüttungen ('Rhapsodies about applying the psychological method of treatment to mental breakdowns') has been called the most important document of Romantic psychiatry. Reil didn't conceptualize madness as a break from reason, but as a reflection of wider social conditions, and believed that advances in civilization created more madness. He saw this as due not to physical lesions in the brain or to hereditary evil, but as a disturbance in the harmony of the mind's functions (forms of awareness or presence), rooted in the nervous system.
Reil also wrote on Blumenbach's idea of the Bildungstrieb (literally, "building power"), a vital force within each organism that compels it to create, maintain, and repair its form. In Reil's essay "Von der Lebenskraft," he argued that each organism contained a "dormant germ" that was activated by the addition of the father's "animal force."
Reil died on 22 November 1813 from typhus contracted while treating the wounded in the Battle of Leipzig, later known as the Battle of the Nations, one of the most severe confrontations of the Napoleonic Wars.
- Hess, Volker (2003), "Reil, Johann Christian", Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German), vol. 21, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 332–333; (full text online)
- Marneros, Andreas (2008). "Psychiatry's 200th birthday". British Journal of Psychiatry. 193 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.051367. PMID 18700209. S2CID 28365371.
- Binder, Devin K.; Schaller, Karl; Clusmann, Hans (2007). "The Seminal Contributions of Johann-Christian Reil to Anatomy, Physiology, and Psychiatry". Neurosurgery. 61 (5): 1091–1096. doi:10.1227/01.neu.0000303205.15489.23. PMID 18091285. S2CID 8152708.
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- Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M.; Mortazavi, Martin M.; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A. (2011). "Félix Vicq d'Azyr (1746–1794): early founder of neuroanatomy and royal French physician". Child's Nervous System. 27 (7): 1031–1034. doi:10.1007/s00381-011-1424-y. ISSN 0256-7040. PMID 21445631.
- Watson, Peter. The German Genius. New York: Harper, 2010. p. 83.
- Hansen, Leeann. "From Enlightenment to Naturphilosophie: Marcus Herz, Johann Christian Reil, and the Problem of Border Crossings." Journal of Natural Biology. Spring 1993, Vol 26., No. 1. pp. 39–64.
- Theodore Ziolkowski, German Romanticism and its Institutions. Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press, 1990, pp. 181–217.
- Watson, p. 83.
- Klemme, Heiner F (30 June 2016). The Bloomsbury Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers. Bloomsbury. p. 608. ISBN 9781474256001. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- Johann Christian Reil, Dictionary of Eighteenth Century German Philosophers
- Reil, Johann Christian (1803)
- Media related to Johann Christian Reil at Wikimedia Commons