John Hay, 1st Marquess of Tweeddale

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The Marquess of Tweeddale
1stMarquessOfTweeddale.jpg
Portrait by Godfrey Kneller.
Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland
In office
1694–1696
Monarch William II
Preceded by The Duke of Hamilton
Succeeded by The Earl of Tullibardine
Lord Chancellor of Scotland
In office
1692–1696
Monarch William II
Preceded by The Earl of Perth
Succeeded by The Earl of Marchmont
Personal details
Born 13 August 1625
Yester, East Lothian, Scotland
Died 11 August 1697 (aged 71)
Edinburgh, Scotland
Religion Presbyterian
Military service
Battles/wars English Civil War

John Hay, 1st Marquess and 2nd Earl of Tweeddale (c. 13 August 1625, Yester, East Lothian – 11 August 1697, Edinburgh) was Lord Chancellor of Scotland.

During the English Civil War he repeatedly switched allegiance between the Royalist cause and the Parliamentarians. He fought for Charles I and joined him at Nottingham in 1642, then for Parliament at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644, on account of his attitude towards Covenanters, and four years later was again on the side of the Royalists at the Battle of Preston.

The 1st Marquess of Tweeddale, posing with his wife Jane, and their children and their children's spouses.

He succeeded as Earl of Tweeddale in 1654, and was imprisoned for support of James Guthrie in 1660. He was a member of the Commonwealth Parliaments of 1656 and 1659.

When Charles II was restored to the throne, he was appointed Lord President of the Scottish Council in 1663 and an Extraordinary Lord of Session in 1664.

He used his influence to moderate proceedings against the Covenanters, but with the hardening of the official attitude in 1674 he was dismissed from office and from the Privy Council on the advice of Lauderdale.

He returned to the Treasury in 1680. Tweeddale supported William III and became a privy councillor in 1689. He was Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1692-6.

He supported the Glorious Revolution in Scotland, and was created Marquess of Tweeddale in 1694. As Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland from 1694 to 1696 he ordered the inquiry into the Glencoe massacre in 1695. He was dismissed from the Chancellorship in 1696 for supporting the Darien scheme.

His portrait by Sir Peter Lely is held by the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.

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Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Perth
Lord Chancellor of Scotland
1692 – 1696
Succeeded by
The Earl of Marchmont
Parliament of Scotland
Preceded by
The Duke of Hamilton
Lord High Commissioner
1694–1696
Succeeded by
The Earl of Tullibardine
Peerage of Scotland
New creation Marquess of Tweeddale
1694–1697
Succeeded by
John Hay
Preceded by
John Hay
Earl of Tweeddale
1653–1697