From 1860 he studied medicine in Paris, receiving his medical doctorate in 1870 and his agrégation in 1874. In 1874 he qualified as a hospital surgeon, and during his career was associated with the hospitals Cochin, Lariboisière, Tenon, Saint-Louis, Beaujon and Hôtel-Dieu in Paris. In 1906 he retired as a hospital surgeon.
While still a student, he traveled to Glasgow in order to study antisepsis under Joseph Lister. Subsequently, he introduced antiseptic surgery to France, publishing an important work on the subject in 1876 that was later translated into English. He also made significant contributions in his work involving bone fractures and hernias. In his research of trepanation, he showed that prehistoric flint tools could make trephine holes in a skull in less than 50 minutes.
- Chirurgie antiseptique; principes, modes d'application et résultats du pansement de Lister, 1876. Translated into English as: Antiseptic surgery; the principles, modes of application, and results of the Lister dressing, (1881).
- Chirurgie opératoire. Cure radicale des hernies, avec une étude statistique de deux cent soixante-quinze opérations, 1887 – Operative surgery, radical cure of hernias.
- La cure radicale de la hernie inguinale, 1890 – The radical cure of inguinal hernia.
- Traitement des fractures par le massage et la mobilisation, 1895 – Fracture treatment through massage and mobilization.
- The modern treatment of fractures, (published in English in 1909).
- Trépanation néolithique, trépanation pré-Colombienne, trépanation des Kabyles, trépanation traditionnelle, 1912 – Neolithic trepanation, pre-Columbian trepanation, etc.
- Just Lucas-Championnière CFDRM
- Biography of Just-Marie-Marcellin Lucas-Championnière at Who Named It
- Library of Health and Living: Encyclopedia of Asthma and Respiratory Disorders by Tova Navarra
- OCLC Classify (published works)