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Shaykh Káẓim-i-Samandar (Persian: كاظم السمندر‎‎‎ ; died 1918), known as Samandar, was an eminent follower of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He was born to a prominent Bahá'í family of Qazvin of Bábí and Shaykhi background. Favored by Bahá'u'lláh, he was identified as one of his nineteen Apostles.

Early life[edit]

Samandar was born Muhammad Kázim Qazvíní in February 1844 in Qazvin, the eldest surviving son of Shaykh Muhammad Qazvíní.[1] Shaykh Muhammad was an early Bábí and later Bahá’í.[2] His father was bastioned in Qazvín and attained the presence of the Báb who was then imprisoned in Máh-Kú. Later Shaykh Muhammad was entitled Nabil by Bahá’u’lláh. He was named after Siyyid Kázim whom his family had close connections with. His mother was a disciple of Táhirih. Samandar was of a wealthy mercantile family, and Shaykh Muhammad Qazvini had made a success of the business.[3] From an early age he was a devout Bahá’í, and clearly remembered the days of persecution as a little boy.


Samandar was living in Qazvin when a group of very active Azali’s begun disputing Bahá’u’lláh and his claims.[4] Samandar studied the writings of both Azali and Bahá’u’lláh. He subsequently became a staunch believer in Bahá’u’lláh, and wrote a pamphlet denouncing the Azali’s and stating they based their claims on nothing.[5] The document was read widely, and reduced influence of the Azali's in Qazvin.

Bahá’u’lláh then renamed Muhammad Kázim Qazvíní as Samandar a Persian word meaning phoenix.[6] Bahá’u’lláh also sent Samandar numerous tablets and prayers in his honour, much of which is still extant. The most famous is perhaps Lawh-i-Fu'ád (tablet of Fu’ád) which was addressed to Samandar. He worked tirelessly teaching the faith in Persia.[7] He traveled all around Iran teaching people of the Bahá’í Faith and its principles. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá also kept in regular correspondence with him.

He had many children; a mixture of boys and girls of whom all married into prominent Bahá’í families of Persia.[8] His most famous child is possibly Taráz’u’lláh Samandarí, a Hand of the Cause of God. In Acre Samandar’s daughter Thurayyá Khánum was married to Bahá’u’lláh’s younger son Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh. She later became a covenant breaker devastating Samandar. He made two pilgrimages to ‘Akká to visit Bahá’u’lláh and the Bahá’í holy family (‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Ásíyih Khánum, Bahíyyih Khánum and Munírih Khánum).


Samanadar died February 5th, 1918. Shoghi Effendi described him a “flame of the love of God” and identified him as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. His memoirs Tárikh-i-Samandar was regularly referred to and seen a source of valuable Bahá’í history. His relatives are known by the surname Samandarí.


  1. ^ Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Baha'u'llah v 3, p. 87
  2. ^ H.M. Balyuzi, Baha'u'llah — The King of Glory, p. 214
  3. ^ H.M. Balyuzi, Eminent Bahá'ís in the time of Bahá'u'lláh p. 192
  4. ^ Taherzadeh p. 88
  5. ^ Peter Smith, A Concise Encyclopedia of the Baha’í Faith p. 303
  6. ^ Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Baha'u'llah v 3, p. 89
  7. ^ Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal p. 130
  8. ^ Samandar, Tárikh-i-Samandar