Swedish Army, Air force
Kapten (Kapteeni in Finnish) (From the Latin word capitaneus meaning head man or chief) is a professional and conscripted military rank in Sweden obtained by employed military personnel after one year as löjtnannt and completing a 40-week course (Note. It is no longer possible for conscripts to obtain the rank); Finland and Estonia, immediately above Löjtnant in Sweden and Yliluutnantti in Finland and just below Major in the Army ranks. In the Navy, the rank is immediately above Löjtnant and just below Örlogskapten.
Obtaining the rank in Sweden
One year as Löjtnant and a 40-week course.
The basic military unit during the Middle Ages was the company raised by a vassal lord on behalf of his lord usually the King. The lord was commissioned by the king as Kapten to lead the unit. As the number of companies grew, one captain was granted overall (general) authority and named captain general, which was shortened to general.
The rank Kaptenlöjtnant changed to Stabskapten (Staff Captain) in 1750.
An obsolete rank in the cavalry that corresponded to Kapten.
Kapten with more than eleven years of service were elevated to Major.
Holders of the following ranks were elevated to Kapten
- Fanjunkare (with a minimum of seven years' service)
- Sergeant (with a minimum of seven years' service)
Reform 1972 - Rank inflation phase I
Before 1972, military personnel were divided into three categories Underbefäl (non-commissioned officers), Underofficerare (warrant officers) and Officerare (commissioned officers). The reform established a four-career-path system with four categories as described below and carried out major promotions of most personnel below the rank Överstelöjtnant.
The Underbefäl category was split into two categories
- gruppbefäl to include
- plutonsofficerare to include
The Underofficer category was renamed kompaniofficerare to include
The Officer category was renamed regementsofficerare to include
- löjtnant - Löjtnant with less than 3 years of service and former fänrik
- kapten - kapten with less than 11 years of service and former Löjtnant with 3-11 years of service
- major - former kapten and löjtnant with a minimum of 11 years of service
- överstelöjtnant - överstelöjtnant and former major
- higher ranks
Reform 1983 - Rank inflation phase II
All categories were merged into one professional officer category with the lowest rank set to fänrik. Furir, överfurir, sergeant and fanjunkare were removed as a professional ranks. Holders of the rank fanjunkare were promoted to löjtnant and the rest to fänrik.
In peacetime training, a kapteeni is the commander of a company. (Majors can also be in this role, but usually majors work in command staff rather than in individual companies.) The rank requires additional training to obtain, in addition to the preexisting military university degree.
It is also possible for reservists to obtain the reserve rank of kapteeni.