Karol Olszewski

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Karol Olszewski
Karol Olszewski.jpg
Karol Olszewski
Born Karol Stanisław Olszewski
(1846-01-29)29 January 1846
Broniszów, Galicia
Died 24 March 1915(1915-03-24) (aged 69)
Kraków, Galicia
Nationality Polish
Education Jagiellonian University in Kraków
Heidelberg University PhD
Occupation Scientist
Known for First to liquefy oxygen and nitrogen.
First Polish X-ray Photographs
Title Professor

Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.


Olszewski was a graduate of Kazimierz Brodziński High School in Tarnów (I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Kazimierza Brodzińskiego). He studied at Kraków's Jagiellonian University in the departments of mathematics and physics, and chemistry and biology. He carried out his first experiments using a personally improved compressor, compressing and condensing carbon dioxide.

Olszewski defended his doctoral dissertation at Heidelberg University, then returned to Kraków, where he was made profesor nadzwyczajny (associate professor).[1]

In 1883, Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski were the first in the world to liquefy oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a stable state (not, as had been the case up to then, in a dynamic state in the transitional form as vapor).

In 1884, in his Kraków laboratory, Olszewski was the first to liquefy hydrogen in a dynamic state, achieving a record low temperature of −225 °C (48 K). In 1895 he liquefied argon. He failed only to liquefy then-newly discovered helium.[2]

In 1896, on hearing of Wilhelm Röntgen's work with X-rays, within a few days in early February Olszewski replicated it, thus initiating the university's department of radiology.[3][4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Polish Ministry of Culture, Science and Media website". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Olszewski, Karol Stanisław," Encyklopedia Polski, p. 464.
  3. ^ "Krakow Chair of Radiology History". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  4. ^ Stanisław Leszczyński and Andrzej Urbanik. "History of Polish Radiology". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 


Inscription in Polish and Latin:
"In this building
Karol Olszewski [and]
Zygmunt Wróblewski
professors at Jagiellonian University
in 1883
for the first time in the world liquifed
components of air
thereby opening to science and industry
new fields of research and application"