Kastrioti (kephale)

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Kastrioti
Kephale of Kanina
hereditiaryPal Kastrioti
Diedafter 1370
Noble familyKastrioti family
Issue

Kastrioti or Castriot of Kanina,[1] who was a kephale of Kanina in 1368, was the first member of the Kastrioti family mentioned in historical documents. He was the father of Pal Kastrioti, grandfather of Gjon Kastrioti and great-grandfather of Skanderbeg. Some scholars believe that his first name was Branilo, while other scholars suggest that this belief is the result of misreading a historical document.

Family[edit]

Kephale Kastrioti was the first member of the Kastrioti family mentioned in historical documents.[2][3]

Kastrioti family is originally from western Kosovo, from where Kastrioti came to Kanina.[4][5] It is assumed that Kastrioti (or his son Pal per Ivo Vukcevich) received his estates in Albania from Serbian Emperor Dušan after the latter captured Berat, Valona and Kanina in 1345.[6][7][8] Kastrioti served on the court of Serbian prince who ruled the Principality of Valona.[9] Kastrioti's title in 1368 was kephale of Kanina.[10][11][12][13] He governed Kanina castle as its kephale[14] or castellan.[15] Because of the position kephale Kastrioti had on the court in Valona Milan Šufflay refers to Valona as the cradle of power of the Kastrioti family.[16]

Descendants of kephale Kastrioti include Gjon Kastrioti and Skanderbeg.[17] Son of kephale Kastrioti was Pal Kastrioti who had three sons: Konstantin, Aleksa and Gjon[18][19] who was Skanderbeg's father.[20][21]

Reign[edit]

According to some scholars in 1356 Kastrioti was a captain in the service of Aleksandar Đorić[22] though there is an opinion that Đorić was not a feudal lord but Đurica, the logofăt.[23] Kephale Kastrioti was among noblemen who did not accept Vukašin Mrnjavčević as successor of Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia and maybe even fought against him in 1370.[24] The Ottomans did not know about him so after they captured the territory he once controlled they did not name it against him.[25]

Ethnic origin[edit]

Some scholars (including Milan Sufflay) concluded that this kephale was of Greek origin based on his name Kastriot[26] (Greek: κάστρο — English: castle[27][28][29][30]). It seems there is a scientific consensus that kephale Kastrioti was of Serbian origin.[31]

First name controversy[edit]

First name of this Kastrioti who was a kephale of Kanina is disputed. Many scholars believe his name was Branilo.[32][33][34][35][36] Branilo first name is quite common in the Kastrioti lineage of Kastrioti family.[37] According to this view, when one of Branilo's descendants (Hamza Kastrioti) converted from Islam to Christianity he chose his first name after his ancestor Branilo Kastrioti.[38] Fan Noli and some other scholars thought that Branilo assertion has been based on Karl Hopf's mistake in interpretation of one historical document.[39] According to their explanation Hopf's assertion that the first name of the kephale of Valona was Branilo was based on the document from Ragusan archives in which kephale of Kanina was named only as Kastrioti. According to the Austrian historian Heinrich Kretschmayr this kephale was in fact Pal Kastrioti, father of Gjon Kastrioti.[40]

References[edit]

  1. ^ George Christos Soulis (1984). The Serbs and Byzantium during the reign of Tsar Stephen Dušan (1331-1355) and his successors. Dumbarton Oaks Library and Collection. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-88402-137-7. Retrieved 7 June 2013. ... and Castriot of Kanina..
  2. ^ Buda, Aleks, Shkrime historike, 3, Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese 8 Nëntori, p. 239, ISBN 978-99927-1-651-9, OCLC 163395350, Dokumentet përmendin për herë të parë një Kastriot në vitin 1368 si kështjellar ose kefali në Kaninë të Vlorës.
  3. ^ von Thallóczy, Ludwig; Konstantin Jireček; Milan von Šufflay; Theodor A Ippen; Ernst C Sedlmayr (1916), Illyrisch-albanische forschungen (in German), München, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 80, 81, OCLC 35691167, Der erste bekannte Kastriot war 1368 nur Kastellan der Berg Kanina bei Valona.
  4. ^ Malcolm, Noel (1998), Kosovo : a short history, New York: New York University Press, p. 88, ISBN 9780814755983, OCLC 37310785, Skanderbeg (meaning 'Lord Alexander'; Alb.: Skenderbeu) was the Turkish name given to an Albanian nobleman, Gjergj Kastriot, whose family, originally from Western Kosovo, controlled extensive lands in north-central Albania.
  5. ^ The Edinburgh review, 1881, p. 332, The first then of the Castriot family known to history was a certain Branilo, a military adventurer from Servia, who. about the year 1368, obtained some lands in the hilly district of Kanina. His grandson, Constantine, allied himself with ex-royalty in the person of Helena Thopia ... and managed in the teeth of Venetian claims, to gain possession of Croya,...
  6. ^ Ivo Vukcevich. Croatia: Ludwig von Gaj and the Croats are Herrenvolk Goths Syndrome. Xlibris Corporation. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-4797-6666-6. Retrieved 7 June 2013. It is a matter of record that Castriot estates in Albania can be traced to Skanderbeg's grandfather, Pal, who received his estates from Serbian Emperor Dushan in 1345
  7. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 77. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Pretpostavlja se da je svoje posede u Albaniji dobio od cara Dušana pošto je ovaj 1345. godine osvojio gradove Berat, Valonu i Kaninu
  8. ^ Zlatarski, Vasil; Valeri Katsunov; Todor Popnedelev (2005) [1901], България през XIV и XV век [Bulgaria before 14th and 15th century] (in Bulgarian), Sofia: Iztok-Zapad, p. 277, ISBN 9789543211722, OCLC 62578897, Прадядо му - сърбинът Бранил, капитан на Александър Джурич Канински - през времето на Душан, се поселил [с. 374] в Епир; потомците му се сродили със знатните албански фамилии. Един от тия внуци - Иван Кастриот,
  9. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2001), "Die Albanische Adelsgeschlechter in Byzantinisch - serbische tradition", Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479), München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH München, p. 185, ISBN 3-486-56569--9, und die Kastriota, die erstmals am Hof der serbischen Fürsten von Valona hervortraten
  10. ^ Hopf 1873, p. 533

    Paolo, segneur de Signa et de Gardi-ipostesi ... Branilo, d'origine Serbe, gouverneur de Canina 1368

  11. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 77. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Njegov pradeda Branilo spominje se 1368. kao upravitelj Kanine
  12. ^ Šufflay 2000, p. 148

    Njegov potomak, Ivan, "gospodin Ivan" u srpskim poveljama, "Ivan Castrioth" u mletačkim spomenicima...

  13. ^ Skok, Petar (1972). Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika. Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. p. 166. Kastriot (1368), ćefalija kaninski...
  14. ^ Blagojević, Miloš (1997), Državna uprava u srpskim srednjovekovnim zemljama (in Serbian), Belgrade: Službeni list SRJ, p. 265, ISBN 9788635503714, OCLC 39897429, ...Дубровнику 1368..кефалија канински Кастриот
  15. ^ Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405–1468), International Universities Press, p. 59, OCLC 732882, Kastrioti kështjellar i Kaninës
  16. ^ Milan Šufflay (2000). Izabrani politički spisi. Matica hrvatska. p. 148. Retrieved 16 April 2013. U Valoni, na dvoru despota Jovana Komnena-Asena (1350. - 1363.), šurjaka cara Dušana i brata bugarskog cara Jovana Aleksandra, stajala je kolijevka moći Kastriota.
  17. ^ Van Antwerp Fine 1994, p. 357

    Sources also mention in 1366 a Castriot as kephale (head) of Kanina ... who probably was an ancestor of John Castriot and Skanderbeg.

  18. ^ Šufflay 2000, p. 148

    Njegov potomak, Ivan, "gospodin Ivan" u srpskim poveljama, "Ivan Castrioth" u mletačkim spomenicima...

  19. ^ Muzaka, Gjon (1873) [1515], Karl Hopf (ed.), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi. Per Giovanni Musachi, despoto d'Epiro, Berlin, archived from the original on 2010-09-10, You should know that the grandfather of Lord Scanderbeg was called Lord Paul Castriota. He ruled over no more than two villages, called Signa (Sina) and Gardi Ipostesi. To this Lord Paul was born Lord John Castriota who became Lord of Mat. And to him was born Lord Scanderbeg. The mother of the said Lord Scanderbeg, i.e. the wife of the said Lord John, was called Lady Voisava Tribalda who was of a noble family.
  20. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 77. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Njegov sin Pavle, gospodar od Sinje, imao je tri sina: Konstantina, Aleksu i Ivana. Kastriote su se preko Konstantina orodile sa najznatnijom albanskom porodicom Topija. Ivan Kastriota, otac Skenderbegov, ozenio se Voislavom koja je
  21. ^ Hopf 1873, p. 533

    Constantino, Alessio, Giovanni

  22. ^ Bryce, James (1907), Hans Ferdinand Helmolt (ed.), The World's History: South-eastern and eastern Europe, 5, William Heinemann, p. 225, OCLC 651928637, Branilo, Serb, captain of Alex Giorich of Ballona at Kanina (about 1356)....Descendants.... Johhanes Kastriot, count of Mat...
  23. ^ Josef Jireček, Konstantin (1952) [1911], Istorija Srba 1 Do 1537 godine (politička istorija) (in Serbian), Belgrade: Naučna Knjiga, p. 242, OCLC 162824847, Хопф је у неразумевању од Ђурице логофета канцелара Александрова Mon. serb. 1. с . начинио кнеза""Александра Ђорића"" Alexander Gioritsch.
  24. ^ Spomenik, 36, Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, 1900, p. 103, OCLC 2066096, А то су морали бити или три брата Балшића или Карло или кеФалијо Кастриота.
  25. ^ Gliša Elezović (1940). Turski spomenice. p. 736. Retrieved 16 April 2013. ...ћефалија канински код Авлоне, па за њега Турци нису знали и зато земда није прозвана по његову имену.
  26. ^ Šufflay 2000, p. 148

    U jednoj srpskoj povelji "avlonskog i kaninskog gospodina" Aleksandra, valjada sina despota Jovana, spominje se (1366) "ćefalija Kaninski Kastriot". Kako mu to pokazuje ime, taj ćefalija bio je podrijetlom Grk.

  27. ^ Michaelides, Constantine E. (2003-11-30). The Aegean crucible: tracing vernacular architecture in post-Byzantine centuries. Delos Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-9729723-0-7. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  28. ^ Bulletin d'archéologie et d'histoire dalmate (in Croatian), 55—59, Split: Arheološki Muzej (Zadar); Arheološki Muzej (Split), p. 118, retrieved 30 November 2011, Još treba istaći Skenderbegovo prezime Kastriot... To je svakako grčka izvedenica ... etnikum od castra
  29. ^ von Thallóczy, Ludwig; Konstantin Jireček; Milan von Šufflay; Theodor A Ippen; Ernst C Sedlmayr (1916), Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen (in German), MÜNCHEN UND LEIPZIG: VERLAG VON DüNCKER & HUMBLOT, p. 80, OCLC 10224971, Kastriot, die einen griechischen Namen führten, „Stadtbürger", kastriotis von kastron, Stadt (aus lat. castrum ; polis war nur Konstantinopel allein).
  30. ^ Schmitt, Oliver (2009), Skanderbeg. Der neue Alexander auf dem Balkan (in German), Verlag Friedrich Pustet, ISBN 978-3-7917-2229-0, Der Name des Stammes Kastrioti leitet sich laut Schmitt vermutlich vom griechischen Wort «kastron» (Festung) ab
  31. ^ Babinger 1976, p. 333

    Branilo Kastriota UrGroßvater Skander-Beg's ist der älteste, uns wenigstens dem Namen nach be kannte Vorfahre des Volkshelden und, wie sich die Forscher einig zu sein scheinen serbischer Herkunft,...

  32. ^ Babinger 1976, p. 333

    Branilo Kastriota UrGroßvater Skander-Beg's

  33. ^ Hopf 1873, p. 533

    Paolo, segneur de Signa et de Gardi-ipostesi ... Branilo, d'origine Serbe, gouverneur de Canina 1368

  34. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 77. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Njegov pradeda Branilo spominje se 1368. kao upravitelj Kanine
  35. ^ von Thallóczy, Ludwig; Konstantin Jirecek; Milan Shufflay; Sektionschef Theodor Ippen; E.C. Sedlmayr; Josef Ivanic (1916), Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen (in German), 1, Duncker & Humblot, p. 179, OCLC 10224971, ein Kefalija Branilo Kastriot von Kanina
  36. ^ Spiridon Gopčević, Geschichte von Montenegro und Albanien 1914, p.51: "Als Kefalia (Häuptling) von Kanina erscheint 1368 ein Branilo Kastriot"
  37. ^ Brockhaus, Hermann (1870), Griechenland geographisch, geschichtlich und culturhistorisch von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart in Monographien dargestellt (in German), Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, p. 122, OCLC 18592423, der Serbe Branilo (ein Vorname, der auch später bei dem Geschlechte ganz gewöhnlich ist)
  38. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 78. Retrieved 27 March 2012. (prešavši u hrišćanstvo Hamza će uzeti ime Branilo, po svom čukundedi)...
  39. ^ Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405–1468), International Universities Press, p. 19, OCLC 732882, The name of this Castriot is preceded by that of certain Branilo, a Slavic name, which Hopf read as the first name of this Castriot.
  40. ^ Kretschmayr, Heinrich (1920), Geschichte von Venedig (in German), 2, Gotha: F.A. Perthes, p. 375, OCLC 39124645, Als erster in der Reihe erscheint 1368 ein Paul als Schloßhauptmann von Kanina bei Valona, sein Sohn Johannes galt für „leidlich machtig in Albanien", wurde Bürger von Venedig und Ragusa, herrschte als Türkenvasall und gefürchteter

Sources[edit]